Guaranteed to Heighten Proprioception: Boston’s More Than A Feeling remixed at the end of the world

In a time when genres like Dub Step (which I adore, by the way) are bringing chaotic and palpable cut & paste erraticism to soundscape, we all need a centering force to be our calming guide.

Enter: StPaulAtTheEndOfTheWolrd, a saint who has recently set out to reclaim your pre-Google attention span.

Like I tweeted in January, StPaulAtTheEndOfTheWorld’s “More Than More Than A Feeling” is the closest experience you can have to floating inside a sensory deprivation tank.  It is ethereal, other-worldly, and downright uplifting to weary souls.  If you are in the middle of comps, mid-terms, candidacy examinations, defenses, or jumping through any other academic hoop – I implore you: take 20 minutes out of your day to meditate on this solid tune – it will make you into a mindful academic with concentration skills unmatched by timid rivals.

More Than More Than a Feeling has hit the SoundCloud charts this week being played almost 170k times in the past 3 days, thanks to an early blog post by Dangerous Minds which scored him an almost 25K overnight boost, and it has been climbing.  I can’t wait to see how far he goes (I heard there is a concept album in the works).

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Multifaceted Living

On the sliding scale of time that gradiently builds and ebbs and recedes I am perpetually being re-context-ed and being iteratively re-inserted into particular frames of reference and spheres of existence.  I am simultaneously (at this point in time) (in no particular order) physically framed: a mortal, a human, and a male; overlapping-ly framed: a man, a child, a son, a husband, a friend, an ex-boyfriend, an occasional ass, but most of the time decent; functionally framed:an employee, a husband (again), a neighbor, a citizen, a representative, a cook, a linguist, and a discourse analyst; and characteristically framed: creative, a reader, obstinate, sour-faced when I am actually quite contented and happy, a driven individual, annoying, entertaining, friendly, unconcerned with things some people think I ought to be concerned about, temperate, calm, chaotic, paradoxical, slimy, ambiguous, wrong, right, and indifferent.

As individuals we have many types of roles and expectations.

These roles and expectations have a place in community.

Let’s assume that individuality exists because there is community.  Let’s agree that community on a macro-level means relationship.  Community defines the application of our roles, defines the way that we relate to the community at large.  Throughout life we have the option to naturally accept or naturally decline participation in any given role.

Our descriptive and identifying labels probably exists because of some micro-role played out in some micro-plot-line of thought or action or interaction or relation.

For me, like any other human, each particular facet of my being carries a whole set of relationships and contexts that also need to be understood if I am to be understood in full.  For instance, being a husband suggests a living spouse, which at one point meant a new marriage, which meant in-laws, which meant new grandparents, most likely new siblings, and new aunts and uncles.  If the actual relationships were not so big of a factor in defining that new portion of my identity, then certainly, the way in which those relatives perceived me in context of how they perceived my spouse certainly carried some sort of value and created expectations for me (including the way I was to interact as a new and extended member of the family).  Furthermore, if family isn’t enough, there were new friends with whom I also entered into relationship, including their sets of expectations, ad nausea.  And this is only the external relations in marriage – I have left aside any relations and expectations that I shared with my spouse.

What about the rest of the roles?  It starts getting crazy when you try to make sense of it all.

In addition to holding a variety of roles I also have sets of attributes that are either activated or deactivated depending on which role I am satisfying.  These attributes are features that define and differentiate so that you can determine who I am and what I am supposed to be doing and why, and how, and when, and where.  I am tour staff, I am the person who knows how to get to Pittsburgh, I am short so I am not the person to change the lightbulb, I am quick so I am the person to run down the street and catch the delivery driver because he forgot a package, I am whatever I am, in terms of attributes, in terms of adjectives.

This is not compartmentalizing; this is maximizing self-awareness to harness it as a tool to leverage the options placed before me.  This reminds me of that Aboriginal saying:  The more you know the less you need.  I know myself.  If we do not know our capabilities, our roles, our nature, then we cannot expect to market those skills to the people who find them valuable in employees, in dates, in spouses, in friends, it voters, et cetera.  Although I am not an objectivist, Ayn Rand tells us that absolutely the writer must know the essentials if they are to write anything of value at all.

You as a multi-hat wearing individual absolutely must know your essence if you are to accomplish anything at all.

As we grow older and accumulate hats we learn that roles do the things they are able to do because of gained experience and knowledge.  Time changes student into teacher, child into adult.  But some roles can overlap and occur simultaneously, such as child, student, pitcher, class clown, et cetera.  Holding a particular role does not necessarily preclude an individual from holding other particular roles.  It may preclude, but it does not necessarily preclude.

Roles overlap and occur simultaneously, some precede, some follow, some preclude at particular times, and others are instances of roles filled immaturely in more mature ways; iterations of roles that continue perpetually until our bones petrify, (skeleton is a meronym of body…that means skeleton is a part of body), or roles that we chose to turn on and off, but irrespective of the time slots that the roles fill they occur between the womb and the tomb, riga tiga tum tum.

I am not your friend until you meet me.

Without being my friend, you can still know the intimate fact based on my usage of “womb” and “tomb” with that nonsensical four word sequence in the prior paragraph that I am culturally literate enough in some particular culture to be able to reference West Side Story.

And we all know so much.

We can’t be satisfied to know that we have an identity or a personality, or that we belong to any particular culture or collection of cultures.  We need to want to know what to do with that knowledge.  We need something more here.  But we operate on a daily basis with the awareness that we need to know our materials and our tools in order to do anything productively creative with our skills and resources.  Accordingly, we need to investigate the nature of our identities, how our identities converge to belong to cultures, how those cultural memberships alter our identities, and then how to use that knowledge in our chaotically complex lives; we need to practice multifaceted learning for this multifaceted living.

http://ryandewey.org/Multifaceted_Living.html

I was featured in a financial blog giving insight into financial crisis language

Last week I was featured in a column on the investment blog MindfulMoney.co.uk with some comments about financial crisis language like “crash” and “stagflation”.

Check out the feature here.

Like I have said before, linguistics has a lot to offer to other disciplines, hopefully we can continue to work our way into those disciplines and continue to create market value for our skill sets.  It just takes people realizing that cognition and language can be systematically applied to real world situations; which for linguists is already a no-brainer.

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Motion Imagery & The Glitch Mob

I love this image from the cover of The Glitch Mob’s We Can Make the World Stop:

People occasionally describe winding canyons as if they were snakes, and this image makes that language explicit by showing a snake winding through the canyon.  We know that canyons do not wind (at least, not in the sense that the language implies), usually it is the river that created the canyon that did the winding as it formed the canyon over time.  But, when this information gets applied to the canyon we can say that this is fictive motion, the canyon is fictively moving, fictively winding.

When The Glitch Mob translate this idea into the clear visual imagery of this cover art, it forces the obvious in a way that makes it compelling to look at.  I think this is because it is a conceptual blend in which there is an input space of CANYON and another input space of SNAKE.  The blended space is the scene of the snake body in the canyon.  Usually in a conceptual blend some of the structure from the input spaces gets left out through the process of compression, but in this case, it appears that there is no compression, but rather a full specification of the input spaces in the blended space.  I think this is a bypassing of compression, and I think that it makes the SNAKE represent the trajector of the motion, so by eliminating compression, what is normally construed as fictive motion has to be thought of as veridical motion; the SNAKE is moving, not the vacuous space of the canyon.

Does the movement of the snake imply causality? In other words, is the snake causing the winding of the canyon?

Does the movement of the snake imply opportunistic movement? In other words, is the snake moving in the canyon because the canyon is a CONDUIT in the conceptual metaphor sense?

Like I said in the first paragraph, except for cases where people are discussing rivers, people normally ascribe the motion to the canyon.  Canyon is thus conceived of as the substance moving through the CONDUIT. However, in this case, the snake is the substance moving through the conduit, and the snake is factively in motion.  This stagnates the fictive motion reading of this imagery, and replaces it with a blend that exploits a conceptual metaphor.  Amazing.

(image courtesy of The Glitch Mob press kit)

Language, Feelings, and the Construal of Insects: Differences between French and English

Papillon

Image via Wikipedia

Since childhood I have thought that butterflies were good insects and that moths were bad insects.  After all, popular thought is that moths are creatures of destruction (hence the need for mothballs), even though this is not exactly the case.  Nevertheless, the frame for conceptualizing moths is a negative frame in English.

Contrast the English perspective with the French construal: butterfly is papillon, moth is papillon de nuit, or, night’s butterfly.  The negative construal is minimized by the fact that they are construed as being of a similar type.  In French, moth can be seen as a lexical subcategory of butterfly.

This is interesting because it shows how a folk-classification system affects the construal; from a cladistic standpoint Lepidoptera cannot be broken into a subgroup that distinguishes between moth and butterfly because moths and butterflies belong to the same monophyletic group with butterflies belonging to moths, and not the other way around as English speakers might hope.  By using a similar form for both creatures French is closer to the phylogenetic reality in its classification schema, but it would be closer if moth was papillon and butterfly were papillon de jour since the basic level papillon would then reflect the moth as the basic level creature.

The way we talk about something governs how we think about it.  French children probably have less disgust for moths than I did, simply because poetically a moth is a butterfly of the night, and not a creature of destruction.

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Real Life Applications of Cognitive Linguistics

Shopping's Goat...

Image by ImAges ImprObables via Flickr

I have said it before and I will say it again: ANYTHING that requires thought benefits from a cognitive linguistic perspective.

We use language to help in making sense of the world, this goes for broad and general topics as well as specific expert domains; language is the medium of meaning, wherever that meaning occurs.

The idea I use in my professional life as an organizational culture planner is to use cognitive science to make sense out of the systems of thought expressed in the routine tasks of the organization and to see how they are described through culture in the form of business practices and personnel behaviors.  If I can see how thought and culture relate via language structures (i.e., conceptual metaphors, conceptual blends, force-dynamics, attention, figure-ground relations, et cetera), then I can help grow organizational culture from an informed perspective.

In BUSINESS:

If you take the communication produced in an average business meeting, break it up into sections that identify the underlying conceptual metaphors, see who communicates what message, and trace the outcomes of the meeting, you can start to get a feel for what drives the organization.

In DESIGN:

Because design is an artifact of human creativity, it reflects the processes of perception.  Pick up any art criticism, architecture and landscape writing, or pulp design magazine, and you will see a range of conceptual structures at play in the terms of the movement of a visual scene, the oscillation of figure and ground (which in many cases roughly correlate to grammatical subject and object), the directing of attention, and the general semiotic structure of the actual design or the commentary; each aspect of the design reflects conception and perception.

In TECHNOLOGY:

Since technology is used in every aspect of life, we can start to see how it becomes a part of culture and cognition; in fact, technology in many respects helps us to distribute our cognitive load across a piece of technology. Pieces of technology are like material anchors that helps us escape from merely thinking with our minds and instead enable us to think with our environment.  This is a matter of conceptual blending, and it plays out in the decisions we make using thought and language, since technology is a tool that helps us learn, decide, and act on collected knowledge.  This is as relevant for super-computers as it is for using a wooden ruler; technology of all forms enables us to actually have something to say about the sensed environment.

In LIFE WITH PEOPLE:

When people want to relate to each other, they use language and other models of symbolization to communicate.  One of the most frustrating and most interesting aspects of communication situations is knowing whether communication is actually happening, or if it is in fact failing.  A lot of this depends on negotiating the common ground to see what each party shares.  Since the language we use for communicating relies so heavily on metaphors, it is often interesting to look at which metaphors people use to communicate, and whether or not those metaphors are understood by the other conversation partners. This holds true for relationship counseling, for customer service relations, and for friendships.  Any time people get together, they use meaningful structures to communicate, and cognitive science offers a suite of tools to analyze that communication.

The idea I use in my work is to exploit the nuances in language and behavior to gain insight into what problems the organization is facing.  I use a three-pronged approach to collect, analyze, and present that data.  I then help the organization to see how to use the results in a meaningful way to produce actionable solutions.  What this does for me is invaluable; I get to have a good time working on different problems, and I get to see how different people work together to help me find solutions that work for them.

I welcome opportunities to participate in translating ideas into cultural practices and love to engage in productive collaboration with people who are open and curious.

Let me know if you want to talk. DM me: @SportLinguist, or leave a comment on the contact page.

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Gone Thesis-ing

Container Ship

Image by MGSpiller via Flickr

As you might observe from the infrequency of posts, I have something else going on right now.  Frankly, I am frightened that the ideas I am mulling over for my thesis will get wasted by playing them out in blog posts, so I am conserving them as I do some other work.  But! Once I find my bearings I will begin to share the process so that it can be a collaborative process in the tradition of good science.  In the meantime, I might occasionally post stuff about fun things in my life like sailing, or hiking, running, birthday parties, dreams about wrestling beavers in woodpiles, gardening, or aesthetic minimalism.

Ok.  Stay tuned.  Seriously.  I know that people always write this on site pages that should really be 404 pages, because they never return to make good on the promised “coming soon”, but I have some serious fun lined up that because of my life and academic schedule WILL be completed on time; and when those deadlines come, I promise you with both sincerity and fortitude that I will begin posting again in earnest.  Subscribe to the blog with the sidebar button and you will know when I return.

Peace be with you.

Les animaux dansent dans le Safari Disco Club

Yelle at Mezzanine

Image by Darius Capulet via Flickr

I am slightly obsessed with Yelle’s Safari Disco Club. I have probably heard the entire album around 100 times since the start of summer.  It is incredibly poetic and full of sustainable fun… “avec un tas d’arrières pensées”.

Also, I should say that this album makes me want to listen to some old Madonna (which to me indicates something about what it means to be in the class of the truly talented versus the obnoxiously celebrated).

Building Narratives with Pictures

Occasionally I repost this picture book that presents a series of images and lets the viewer surmise a probable narrative.

Take the time to check it out.

Maple Keys remind me of a Taxonomy chart

Silver Maple. Seeds.

Image via Wikipedia

I was thinking about maple keys recently.

The maple key is an interesting schema of a taxonomy; the kernel is like a category node – the top-level domain.  Each vein in the wing of the seed branching away from the node is a trace of the path along which the line of membership in the category emerges as an [instance] of a membership [type].

On a slightly more abstract note, the veins also forecast a resemblance of the future roots and branches of the eventual tree, and in a way alluding to the further growth of category membership as each tree root eventually supports the life of the tree so that each tree branch can ultimately produce more seeds so that it might perpetuate, exponentially, the life of this tree of knowledge.

 

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Earth, Wind, Fire, Water…Fire wins for attention.

Campfire with sparks in Anttoora, Finland.

Image via Wikipedia

Last weekend when I was camping with some friends I was noticing how the layout of the campsite directed people’s attention.  It seemed as if no one paid attention to the surrounding scenery (the forest, the lakes, the mountains) because the focal point of the campsite was the fire pit.  Everything in the campsite oriented around the fire; even the way we chose to set up camp centripetally focused on the fire pit.  Tents faced the fire. The camp table faced the fire.

I found this directed attention kind of odd because intentionally, the fire pit was placed so that the background scenery would be the lake and the mountains across the lake.  But instead of attending to the scenery, everyone was rapt in attention and staring at the flames.  Fire mesmerized us all.

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Making eye contact as one form of coordination between store clerks and shoppers

Yesterday (a busy Saturday at 4pm) I went to a clothing store with my wife. While I was shopping I was almost run into by 4 employees who I felt were not looking where they were going. Two other employees were standing with clothing racks such that they blocked the entire aisle (these were main aisles too) and I had to weave my way through a maze of aisles to effectively navigate around the workers.

This struck me as odd.

Before I go any further, let me say that I have participated in other cultures where eye contact is dispreferred and this is not one of those situations.

I mentioned to my wife that no one was looking up to see where they were going and that no one had made eye contact with me. She said “maybe they have other ways of seeing where they are going.” I responded that I was not talking about whether or not they were able to sense obstacles in their paths, but it was more a matter of coordination.

I don’t meant coordination in terms of a person’s ability to balance or juggle or chew gum and walk; I meant coordination in terms of the social performance of a joint activity, in this case, negotiating aisle-etiquette between two people (let alone the fact that this incident was between store workers and a store customer). This is a matter of whether or not two people are able to jointly indicate to each other that they are aware of the presence of the other person so that mutually informed decisions about walking and passing can be established. As it stands, even if those employees sensed my presence their posture, lack of eye-contact, and aloof busyness prohibited them from confirming to me (and probably other shoppers) that they were not about to run me over.

Had they taken the brief 500 or so milliseconds to make eye contact with me, we both could have coordinated our actions any neither of us would have had to sacrifice energy to avoid the other.

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Truffle to Truffle: Metaphors of Dirty Decadence

Truffle Market in Carpentras.

Image via Wikipedia

I can’t tell if I like truffles the mushroom better than I like truffles the chocolate, but one thing is for sure, truffles of any kind offer a guilty pleasure.  From a cognitive science perspective both types of truffles are related to each other, perhaps not on the Linnaean taxonomy, but certainly from a metaphorical position.  Look at these facts:

Take the features of the Mushroom:

  1. Relative Rarity
  2. Decadent and Dark Earthiness
  3. Lumpy & Dirty
  4. Expensive

…and metaphorically translate them into Chocolate:

  1. Good ones (i.e., NOT Lindor or Trader Joes) are Rare
  2. Dark Chocolate Decadence
  3. Lumpy & Dusted with a fine cocoa powder
  4. Expensive

The idea is to get a sweet version of the savory kind, find a translatable equivalent from the language of savory to the language of sweet.

Both the mushroom and the chocolate share these two characteristics:

  • They are both Expensive, where: a) Cost correlates with Quality and b) Cost correlates with Rarity, and,
  • They are both Dirty
I have been making truffles by hand for a little over a decade and at first I followed a recipe but over time it has kind of evolved to the point that I feel that I can call it my own.  Here is my process:
Typically I take about a pound of a rich dark chocolate (try a slave-free chocolate from this list), shave it, melt it in a double boiler, concurrently bring about a cup of heavy whipping cream just to a boil (without scalding), remove it from the flame and fold the chocolate into the cream.  At this point I will add something special (i.e. dark rum, cayenne, or marmalade) and set it aside to cool.  This is the ganache for the truffle filling.  Once it is cool I scoop it into small marble-sized balls using a melon spoon, place them in my freezer and leave the door open (I use the freezer as part of my extended working space and it is easier than opening and closing the door).  Have on hand a deep bowl with an non-dutched cocoa powder (something French is nice).  I bring about 10 ounces of a different grade of chocolate to melting point (temper it if you know how) and one at a time roll the frozen ganache balls in the melted chocolate, gingerly dropping them into the bowl of cocoa powder and quickly swirling the truffle around in the powder.  If you do this right the powder covers the entire truffle and evens out the coating of tempered chocolate.  Remove it from the powder with a plastic spoon and return it to the chilled freezer to let it set up.  Keeping them any longer than a week diminishes their quality.

Now that I shared my recipe I want to address the metaphor.

The idea about the metaphorical transfer that takes place is that concepts from one domain are mapped onto referents in another domain; in this case: mushroom maps to chocolate.  Interestingly, like many metaphors, this directionality is a one way mapping, in other words, it might be hard to map concepts from the chocolate truffle back onto the mushroom truffle.  But this is not impossible, for instance, say that someone begins to wrap their truffle mushrooms in a foil bon-bon wrapper to add a touch of novelty – then this behavior would be a feedback mapping of the metaphor.  That said, no truffle vendor in their right mind would cheapen the mushroom with that kind of kitsch, and no sensible market customer would buy a wrapped truffle they could not see.  So practically, it is probably safe to say that the metaphor only goes one direction.

Looking at the dusting of the truffle with cocoa we can see how the dirt environment of the mushroom acts as a containing boundary, in fact, the irregular shape of the mushroom comes from the fact that it grows underground and the pressure of the soil molds the mushroom, the soil embodies a force schema of restraint and acts as a container.  Likewise, the swirling of the truffle in the cocoa powder shapes the truffle and envelopes the chocolate truffle in a skin of powder (another container).

To wrap things up, think about this super simplified rendering of the metaphor:

Can you think of any other types of food that could be mapped using this simple template?  If so, post a comment with an example, we should try and get a little typology of food process metaphors going.

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Yep…it is a broken sink.

 

 

This was a sink in my house in West Africa.

Usage-Based Construction Selection

I just posted a seminar essay that I wrote a few months ago to the Cognitive Science Network. You can download the paper here (click the button that says “One-Click Download”) and read the abstract below:

Abstract:

Broadly, the cognitive linguistic enterprise seeks to identify an emergentist approach to language that investigates the motivation of language use, considers the effects of distributed cognition in situated communication, views complex systems of form-meaning pairings as primitives, and views online processing as dynamic. Within this tradition, this essay takes the position that language use is a manifestation of construal operations in the selection process of utilizing appropriate constructions which encode speaker perspective in a situated common ground. What follows is a usage-based treatment of the situated nature of construction selection in adult language informed by research in child language acquisition, discourse studies of communication, and construction grammar.

Why Fictive Motion Matters (briefly)

One of the interesting features of fictive motion is that the processing of fictive motion engages the mental resources used in performing the fictive motion, or at least correlates with time (saccades and scanning). This accords with the ideas of simulation semantics and spatial relations. Matlock & Richardson claim that distinct spatial relations can be evoked through fictive motion when contrastive literal recount of motion does not evoke that same degree of spatial relations (p. 12). They suggest that verbal and visual processes work together to interpret fictive motion. Consider the sentence, “Her hair ran all the way past her butt.” which likely evokes a visual representation of the back of a woman, long hair, her landmark butt, and the way that the hair traverses the distance.

Matlock argues that If we understand fictive motion as simulated motion it is probable that the simulation emerges from the collection of real world encyclopedic knowledge that we gather through our everyday experiences (p. 10). Consider this example “Apply the grout so that it runs between the tile” as compared to “Apply the grout between the tiles”. In the first example, the mental scanning likely causes the reader to mentally draw on our knowledge of stretches of tile and to follow them in a scanning motion for several tiles in a sequence. The second sentence probably evokes a more static image of two tiles with grout between them. This is interesting because it reflects the connection between mental processing, language, vision, and embodied experience.

How Goldbergʼs Cognitive Construction Grammar differs from Langackerʼs Cognitive Grammar

Cognitive Grammar (CG) views categories at a level of granularity that is below the views espoused in the current edition of Cognitive Construction Grammar (CCxG); instead of using prototypes, CG relies on an quasi-atomistic assemblage model for category formation. CCxG on the other hand could be seen as a more stochastic stab at the problem of category structure, since it is based on prototype effects. To me, these do not seem to be mutually exclusive foci; CG answers a lower level problem than CCxG. CCxG does not need that level of analysis because of the emphasis on generalization in construction use which exist at a higher level of concern.

Also, CG differs from CCxG in that CCxG looks at construal of meaning to be situation based and a matter of choice, CG, on the other hand, views construal as a fixed attribute of form. Consequently, CCxG may have a better view of semantics than CG since CCxG is not rigidly tied to the formalisms required by a reductionist model (even if it does maintain the claim that constructions are form-meaning pairings).

CG in this view, seems to be more focused on an association-based model to account for form-meaning pairings and CCxG seems to rely on construction generalizations to establish the meaning and frequency to confirm the form.

Protected: Haiman’s view of Iconic and Economic Motivation

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Perpetual Epicentral Density Sphere

Dandelion seeds (achenes) can be carried long ...

Image via Wikipedia

The Perpetual Epicentral Density Sphere is a unpublished model of cognition that I began developing in the late ninety’s and early years of 2000 as a result of my training in linguistics and anthropology.  I worked on it before I knew what Cognitive Linguistics actually was and, in fact, it was part of my conversion to CogLing.  With a nod to remix culture and assemblage theory, this model tried to blend together several validated models of discourse and culture in a super feeble attempt to bridge the epistemological gulf between realism and relativism and explain the complete communication picture in a systematic and procedurally elegant way (read: quasi-arbitrary).  This was the early days of my interest in systems theory, but I was really naive about the complexity of complexity.  Basically, the more that I worked on the model the more I came to see that Cognitive Linguistics already had working solutions to a lot of the questions I was addressing.  In fact, when I read back through my notes now, I see that it is actually a model of attention and dynamic construal.  I won’t tell you anything more about the mechanics right now, but I expect that one day I will pull it back off the shelf and show it to the world; in the mean time, here is an analogy from my original manuscript (part of which is in this book) for you to chew on:

“Pick the white puff of seeds on a dandelion clock, pick the stem and hold it in your hand, and meticulously and decidedly, remove every single floating seed, one-by-one until there is only one remaining.  This is what the first thought does when it moves to the second thought.  You have deselected every seed, ignored them all but one, the one you highlighted, the one you lit up – the one you selected.  This, the lone seed on the stem, a sphere at the base, the rod line of the seed body, and the end of the seed a circle of tiny white hairs that extend radially from the stem in many many directions, this seed is a snapshot. You are holding in your hand the most natural visible representation of how your thoughts live and travel.  Now put that last seed up to your mouth and do the wind’s job and send that seed floating.  Where it lands it either develops or dies, just like your thought.”

“If you can take a line of thought and follow it to every dead-end, out every open door and window, to every destination – and catch it resting – you will see simply and plain how lawless and unruly even simple thoughts are in their brief lives.”

You can view images from my portfolio that were inspired through this process at: RyanDewey.org

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On walking and mediated embodied experience in ethnographic map making

Girl walking in a beach. Porto Covo, Portugal.

Image via Wikipedia

Recently I’ve been thinking about my spatial experience of my contextual environment and about what I have learned over the years in consciously encountering space as a user of space, a creator of space, and a participant in community through space.  I am thinking about this as I am getting ready to do some tutoring on domain mapping in ethnographic research.  Here is a summary of my spatial experience.

As a child most of my experience with space was either moving through it on foot or by being driven around in a car.  Toss in the stroller, occasional plane ride, boating, crutches, sledding, riding a bicycle, but by and large WALKING and RIDING dominated my childhood experience of space.

As an adult I would live in cities like Chicago and Honolulu, places where the infrastructure encouraged walking.  This changed my understanding of terrain, and walking became my primary vantage point for my movement through space, although each place did have new modes of movement; Chicago had a train, Honolulu had surf boards.

Doing fieldwork in West Africa I would never drive; I saw most of sub-Saharan Africa in a van, or a Volkswagen, or a Renault, but I was always the passenger.  At least I could stare out the window and imagine what it was like at a walking pace.

Where I live now has a walkability score of 25 out of 100.  Where I lived in Chicago had a score of 98, Hawai’i had a score of 78; clearly my current 25 is pitiful in comparison.

To be fair, where I live now there are some residents with a score of 82, so, it is not like walking is precluded by living here, just that it is not easy for everyone (like me).  I walked home from work once and it took me three hours.

This has restricted my daily routine movement to driving.  These days I experience my landscape from a vehicle (much like my Africa passenger days), but this time I don’t even get to look around and pay attention to what zooms past my face; no, I only pay attention to that which is necessary to avoid collisions.

Driving has seriously hindered my sense of place.  I used to spend a lot of time walking, exploring, noticing things at street level, at a pace that let me participate and observe; being a car driver has forced me to give up participation with a place in favor of being a consumer of that place, the road is just a conduit.

Instead of participating with the place I now participate with my driving peers as we consume the street on our way to our various destinations.  The interactive dynamic is not with the people who reside in a place, but with people who routinely pass through the place.  This is like the boat that is moored to the riverbank, the boat might not move but the river has certainly changed.

Compared to the speed with which I now drive through my neighborhoods, walking is practically standing still.  Walking is being the boat moored to the bank; driving is the rushing river.  And the places I drive through do not really change either, but I have nothing to do with the neighborhoods which I zoom through, not the shops, not the landscape, not the people.

I need to stop driving so much.

I need to learn to walk, again.

I need to experience the physical crust of earth and to encounter a place with my feet, unmediated by round rubber tires and a gas pedal.

Being a driver has abstracted my encounter with a place by removing the minutia and patient tiny details made visible to the walking man.  I say “man” because I speak of myself; I was a walking man, like James Taylor, but now, where I live, if you walk expect to be stared at, honked at, yelled at by crazy fun-loving child-drivers, and occasionally the target of someone’s empty sodacan/coffeecup/waterbottle hurled out the window with an insult.  I am serious; walking is stigmatizing, and dangerous.

This is partly why I drive places.

My level of attention to place as a driver does not decompose into lower level experiences with place like it does on a stroll where those small experiences gradiently build up to become a walking journey, instead I pay more attention to how many red lights have impeded my progress.

Walking for me does more than serve the function of travel between places; I walk to know a place.

When I move somewhere new (or even visit from out of town), the first thing I do is walk around a place, in an ever widening gyre, a scroll stroll uncurling through a city emanating away from my apartment or hotel room.  I walk around and I get a feel for what surrounds me.  I don’t even look at a map until I have learned the map through my feet.  By doing this I start to learn my place in the broader context, and this is where you encounter the joys of a place, its people, its vitality, its curiosities; by walking you learn the identity of a place.

This afternoon I thought about how walking is natural for me as an ethnographer; in fact, walking is essential.  And one of the reasons it is so important is that it helps in making maps of a place, in mapping the domains and the various spatial relations found in that place.  Sure, you can sit somewhere and draw a map of everything you see, but I promise you, if you walk around a place and look first with your feet, your map will be more detailed, more accurate, and more relevant as you come to capture the reality which each participant experiences as they use that space.

I might have seen a lot of sub-Saharan West Africa, but it doesn’t mean too much to me, and I certainly could only attempt to map it out from an approximation of the various landmarks I happened to have noticed from the window.  This is because the dynamic and progressive movement of a vehicle is that your sense of figure-ground organization is constantly shifting, and it goes as fast as the driver feels is necessary.  But when you walk around, if something becomes figural in your field of vision, and you feel it is important, you get to pause for a moment and reflect on the significance of what you have seen.  This kind of intentional embodied experience is vital for making sense of a place.

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A Layered Approach to a Common Ground Reading

I just posted another paper on the Social Science Research Network, it is an analysis of a multi-layered communication situation using Herbert Clark’s notion of the Common Ground.  Here is the abstract:

In a January 27, 2011 interview on the National Public Radio radio show Fresh Air (hosted by Terry Gross), guest Robert Spitzer made this comment: “Brazil doesn’t have a second amendment in their constitution.” However, as of May 2010 the Citizen Constitution (Brazil’s constitution since 1988) has been amended 64 times, which necessarily includes a second instance of an amendment being made. This fact renders a literal reading of Spitzer’s remark to be infelicitous. Instead, it is argued that Spitzer’s remark utilized the architecture of the situation to engage participants in a joint activity of maximizing the common ground.

This essay explores the role of a shared common ground in layered communication situations which enables participants to understand speaker construals. This falls within the domain of joint attention and pragmatic analysis of communication situations. Clark’s (1996) notion of Common Ground will be used to analyze the situation and untangle the communication layers to question what each participant needs to understand in order to orient on the intended meaning of the speaker. Using attested data from a radio interview, this paper explores three layers of communication and identifies the various aspects of a common ground that are required for a proper reading of a speaker’s intended meaning. This common ground is argued to be essential in the process of the negotiation of meaning. What follows is an initial exposition of the methodological process in this analysis, followed by a situating of the context for the data, and finally the application of the analytical method to the data with appropriate conclusions.

Attention Hot Heads (of any stripe): I want to be clear about this, I am analyzing the structure and content of someone’s statements about the Second Amendment; I am not making any kind of evaluation (positive, negative, or neutral) of the content of the surrounding political discourse about gun laws.  I will not debate in the comments about any aspect of this political discourse, but I will debate aspects of my analysis and of Clark’s notion of the common ground.

Download my paper here: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1794523

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Why I Care About Ontology

Staircase perspective.

Image via Wikipedia

In a broad sense of the term, any particular ontology serves as a framework against which we interpret information; think of it like an organized perspective that we use as a lens to view and understand the world.

When you study a culture you are concerned with figuring out how they understand the world and how they make sense of the world.  This study of sense-making follows the concept that people do what seems logical and rational to their perspective.  I am interested in mapping these sense-making resources and translating them into a format that reveals the internal consistency and relationships between the rationale and the external context and stimuli.

If you look back through the histories of science & philosophy you will see the pendulum swing between two extremes in regard to ontology, one extreme believes that there is a unified and complete ontological structure to the world, the other extreme believes that there are many unified and complete ontological structures.  This is the debate between whether we can know truth objectively, or whether it is known as a perspective.

In my work I explore how we construct global formal ontologies as well as how we generate idiosyncratic folk-ontologies; this is the both/and response – I want to know how we engage in thinking when it is shaped by public beliefs and private beliefs and what it takes to reconcile the disjunctions.

One of the ideas that has kept my attention the longest is that the structure of a thought represents the choices that have been made to arrive at that thought, and that structure also shows us what has been ignored as the thought is being formed.  I want to know how the external world interacts with the internal world.  I want to know how it directs our thinking.  This is the foundational riddle that makes me want to do linguistics.

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Language Change and Burritos

A Chipotle restaurant sign

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Driving home from class last night I spotted a new Chipotle billboard and it made me think about language change.  The copy-writer used indefinite article a but not the form of the article usually expected for the context (I usually expect an with a vowel-initial word).  Here is the text:

“Our ingredients on a ego trip.”

Frankly, this doesn’t make me mourn anything about the state of American English, instead I choose to see this as language change happening right before my eyes.

What are your thoughts about language change?

What are your thoughts about a usage-based grammar vs. a prescriptive grammar?

Leave some comments.

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Schematic Construals in Favor of Ecological Transportation

If you say the admittedly odd sentence “The baby feeds on mother’s milk.” it accesses a parasitic construal for the act of eating.  Pardon any offense this might cause you; I promise to redeem myself.  I am not saying that babies are parasites, but that the transfer involved could be construed as parasitic at this stage (depending on your nature/nurture views).  Please hang on for a few more sentences.

If you replace the lexical items with items from the same grammatical categories you could arrive at this sentence: “The car runs on gasoline”; this construal is merely consumptive.  All that has been done is replace a subject noun (baby) for another subject noun (car), a verb phrase (feeds on) for another similar verb phrase (runs on), and finally, a noun (mother’s milk) for an another noun (gasoline).

The innocent and non-parasitic behavior of the car in the second example sentence results from the fact that the source of the consumed material is absent from the semantics of the sentence.  Some would argue that it is implied.

So far we have a baby that acts parasitically toward its mother in order to consume a substance in order to operate, and a car that acts consumptively toward a substance in order to operate.

I want to argue that the car is actually parasitic depending on how your worldview construes the relationship between gasoline and its originating source: fossil fuel that comes from within the earth.  A reading of the earth as a mother (which many mythological systems do) would render the car’s unidirectional consumption of fuel a parasitic consumption of a resource from the earth.  If you construe the concept CAR in this parasitic way and realize that it is markedly different from a relationship between a child and a mother (the child later benefits the mother, they have a loving bond, they provide things for each other – exculpating the child from the parasitic framing), it seems reasonable to begin to look for ways to mitigate the parasitic nature of the car.  While some of the emissions from a car may provide positive feedback into the system our earth belongs to, by and large the car does nothing good for the earth, and truly embodies the role of parasite.

Something should change.

Because transferral of energy always entails a forward chain of consumption, it cannot be the consumption model that needs to change; it must be the parasitic nature.

One alternative is an epiphytic consumption, something like a solar car.  (At this point you probably see that this is not an article about babies or about cars, but rather construal and schematization).  Whether or not solar cars are a reality, that model would satisfy the need to reduce the parasitic nature of gasoline-run cars on the limited resources of a mother earth.

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Different Uses of “If”

Arthur River, Mitre Peak and Milford Sound, 19...

Image by National Library NZ on The Commons via Flickr

  1. If we don’t pay that ticket, then I will have to go to court. [causal]
  2. It would be great if everyone just got along. [idealistic]
  3. I wonder if she knows she has jelly all over her silk blouse? [oblique]
  4. This kind of mustard, if it can even be called mustard, makes me sick.[aside/exception/dismissive/doubt]
  5. We can keep talking, if you want. [permission]
  6. If you don’t shut up, we are splitting up. [threat conditional]
  7. If everyone is doing it, I might as well do it too. [since causal]
  8. If you’re not shutting up, well, I guess we are splitting up. [since/continuing conditional]
  9. Sounds iffy to me. [uncertainty]
  10. We have to consider the “what ifs?” in order to do our jobs properly. [full NP uncertainty construction]
  11. We have to consider the “what ifs?” if we want to succeed. [conditional]
  12. Treat everyone with kindness, if not respect. [restrictive]
  13. If you must. [concession]
  14. If only. [implausibility]
  15. As if. [sarcastic implausibility]
  16. If he was an ogre, at least he was kind. [factual]
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Celebrate the Ides of March: Caused Motion Transitivity, Brutus and the Knife

I was thinking about examples of caused-motion verbs and realized that English has a caused-motion transitive use of the verb to run.  What might an example look like? Simple:

“Brutus ran a knife into Caesar’s back.”

You could say that this is merely metaphorical, but then, you would be wrong.  Try removing the indirect object:

*”Brutus ran a knife.”

My, that’s ugly.  It looks like the laurel wreath goes to transitivity for this use of run. Long live the transitive construction and the Cognitive Empire.

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How Inception Helps Me Edit Papers

Inception: Alternative Poster

When I am writing a paper that has a page limit I use the first draft to make sure that I have a complete thought, I do not worry about exceeding the page limit.

For the first round of editing I read through the entire paper once. I then reread the paper section by section.

I open a new document for sections which I want to edit and conduct all of my editing in the new window so that I can preserve the original thought while I carve up its copy.

During that new window editing, I will then take paragraphs from the section and open new windows for each of them before using the cut copy paste “kick” to move it back through the layers of the document.

When I make it back to the original layer, what I am left with is a concise, coherent, and consistent paper. In a way, for each paragraph I have gone three layers deep to plant my idea.

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How I became a Linguist: Characteristics of Intelligent Behavior

Systems thinking about the society

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Sometime in the early nineties my mother gave me a list of Arthur Costa’s twelve characteristics of intelligent behavior.  This list actually had a lot of influence in my life as I stumbled upon the trajectory toward anthropology and linguistics.  It taught me that I could actually organize observations and thoughts and cause them to not only make sense out of reality, but to blend the sense-making process with the process of describing reality.

I wanted to summarize Costa’s 1988 list here and to provide a link to a full article by Costa that explains the rationale behind each of the list items.

  1. Persistence, persevering when the solution to a problem is not immediately apparent
  2. Decreasing Impulsivity
  3. Listening to Others – with Empathy and Understanding
  4. Flexibility in Thinking
  5. Metacognition: Awareness of Our Own Thinking
  6. Checking for Accuracy and Precision
  7. Questioning and Problem Posing
  8. Drawing on Past Knowledge and Applying it to New Situations
  9. Precision of Language and Thought
  10. Using All the Senses
  11. Ingenuity, Originality, Insightfulness: Creativity
  12. Wonderment, inquisitiveness, curiosity, and the enjoyment of problem solving – a sense of efficacy as a thinker [Costa: 1988]

What strikes me as important in this list, is the correlation to the task of conducting both anthropological and linguistic fieldwork.  Wherever one is a stranger this list equips with the basic attitude necessary to learn to fit it, or at least to be welcomed in to a community.

This list is also manifest in anyone doing any kind of systems science.  All twelve of these skills make it possible for you to collect data, analyze it, and turn it into some kind of presentable report that describes the system.  This three activity cycle: collect, analyze, present is what I feel is at the core of being any kind of productively observational person.

Since this original list was published in the 80’s, Costa has revised it under the label “Habits of Mind” and expanded it to include 16 habits.  Since this revised list was not a part of my path to linguistics I chose instead to list the original.  However, the revised list is great and can be found here.

Bibliography:

Costa, Arthur, L. (1988). Teaching for Intelligence: recognizing and encouraging skillful thinking and behavior. (p.22) in Transforming Education (IC #8), Context Institute. Stable URL: http://www.context.org/ICLIB/IC18/Costa.htm

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On Failure & Resilience in Optimization of Human Systems, Ecological Systems, and Networked Systems of Systems

I was recently watching Eleanor Saitta’s talk called “Your Infrastructure Will Kill You“.  Part of her talk outlined how optimization equals fragility (more or less).  That to the degree that something is cleaner, more elegant, or more efficient, it is fragile, and a break in the system can be potentially catastrophic.

In thinking about her comments I thought of a few examples where I have observed optimization creating a state of fragility, here are a few of my thoughts:

  • This has interesting considerations for general principles of design, specifically the form/function aspect of design. Probably the point at which form begins to extend beyond the needs of function the focus on form becomes gratuitous and potentially even hazardous (depending on the type of system).  Ironically, optimization in this case is not absolute optimization, but only optimization considering a specific set of requirements: when things are running smoothly then the system is optimized.
  • Another place for failure is when relationships are optimized; when the dispersal of information through a system relies on optimized relationships it only takes the breaking of one of the nodes in a network to create a chain reaction of subsequent nodes being uninformed.We think about how a well-connected network effectively distributes information, specifically in recent thought this informed an analysis of William Dawes vs. Paul Revere – showing how Revere’s relationship of network brokers enabled him to broadcast more extensively than Dawes’ impoverished closed network.  This is good thinking, except that it misses the point of threat: Revere was a weak link in that optimized chain of information; had he been eliminated his message would have been eliminated.  Revere and his network, although connected and optimized, were fragile.
  • In generative linguistics there is an optimization of the lexicon. Economy in space is valued above economy in processing; if this is opaque to you, I mean that generative linguistics tries to minimize the amount of information that it stores as unique units.  It is called “generative” because it generates complex utterances from values stored in the lexicon through recursion, instead of storing those values as wholes.  But there is a weakness; in optimizing the lexicon the generative power of the spell-out rules of Universal Grammar are fragile when it comes to dealing with actual language usage (which is the test of a linguistic theory, is it not?), and the rules fail to account for some foundational constructions of language (like idioms for example).

Ok, so there are lots of places where optimization leads to failure, but what are some ways in which optimization leads to resilience?  What are some solutions to these problems?

Redundancy is a great solution, but it is bulky.

  • When function is optimized it allows you to work backwards in the process of making things have better forms. This is actually how a lot of design progresses.  Think about how every piece of electronic technology that we have today had a larger predecessor.  Think about those clunky mobile phones from the eighties with the handset, base and cord in a leather bag, now look at the mobile phone you carry in your pocket.  Functionality was concept proven in the clunky design, and the form was optimized to enhance the function.
  • It seems to me that the optimization weakness in the Revere incident was that Revere was the weak link.  Instead of depending on the optimization of Revere’s relationships, perhaps the message itself needed optimization. One possible way to optimize the information load of a message is to abstract it (as was done with the signal of the hanging lanterns to indicate the route of attack), and another way is to reduce dependence upon a single messenger exploiting a network (In 1775 the sexton who hung the lanterns was a single messenger, Revere was a single messenger, et cetera).  Flooding a network with messengers bearing an abstracted signal would have been less fragile (put aside for the moment the need for secrecy in the 1775 incident).  In situations where secrecy is not vital, consider how this kind of network flooding would communicate the coherence of the message; when you hear the same thing from five people you at least start giving some credence to the constancy of the message.  In such cases what may have been unknown or even background information becomes salient and foregrounded through repeated exposure. Also, consider other types of signals that can be exploited to prompt a response of crowd mobilization, noises work particularly well.  Sirens and loud noises alert and orient people’s attentional systems toward the source of the signal, and that source becomes figural in the contextual noise of that signal.
  • Optimization can lead to resilience in online processing, like in a maximized lexicon that places the task of optimization on the processing skills required in the selection and extraction of form-meaning elements from the inventory.  Cognitive approaches to the lexicon seek to preserve economy in processing; instead of having a minimal lexicon with lots of processing rules, the cognitive approach has an ordered inventory of form-meaning pairings (including monomorphemic elements, constructions, and phrases that are learned whole), with an optimized processing system of constraints, schemas, and other elements of cognitive processing (see this week’s post on emergentist vs. universalist view for understanding the contrast in general cognitive processing vs. modular mind).
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Primitive Modals in Child Language (Hafta, Wanna, Gonna) As Functionally Equivalent to Auxiliary Modals

Modals represent a perspective of force in relation to the participatory elements of a construction.  In fact, they represent an encoding of force in the relation between subject, verb, and object.

Children acquire modals by way of constructions that employ notions of speaker attitudes like intention, volition, and compulsion (245, Tomasello: 2003), and the constructions that they use are form-meaning pairings of these attitudes to a class of non-modal verbs including: want, have, need, among others.  Through use of these constructions, children begin to use reduced forms to communicate their understanding of internal volition (wanna), external compulsion (hafta), internal compulsion (needta) where the verb is coupled with a reduced form of “to” (indicating direction toward) (246, Tomasello: 2003).

These quasi-modal constructions are aligned functionally with auxiliary modals which direct degrees of compulsion and force of purpose.  This is seen in the deontic modal function of hafta which equates with must (Tomasello, 262).  In a way, these can both be understood to represent a requirement on the part of the grammatical subject.

 

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An Emergentist vs. Universalist view of Language and Cognition

Distributed cognition

Image by Lisa Brewster via Flickr

I wanted to present a list that outlines some of the main differences in thought about language between Emergentist and Universalist perspectives.  This is important I think because it shows how only certain kinds of programmers and mathematicians can work successfully within a Cognitive framework.

Consider these characteristics of an Emergentist (Cognitive) view:

  1. Singular Mind (General Cognitive Abilities)
  2. Distributed Cognition
  3. Neo-Empiricist
  4. The Complex System IS the primitive
  5. Prototypes
  6. Online and Dynamic Processing
  7. Usage Based View of Language
  8. Falsifiable
  9. The Appropriate Level of Granularity is the Form-Meaning Pair (i.e., constructions)

Now, compare that list with this Universalist (usually Generative) view on the same issues:

  1. Modular Mind
  2. Localization in Neuroscience
  3. Innate
  4. Atomistic, Reduce!
  5. Feature based categories & Atomistic Set Theory
  6. Stable Structures and “Switches” that enable cognition
  7. Competence Based View of Language
  8. Language is the de facto expected product of the mind
  9. Reductionism refines phenomena out of existence

Can some middle perspective be taken that combines both extremes?  What are your thoughts?

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How Children’s Overgeneralizations in Construction Use Informs Second Language Acquisition and the Negotiation of Meaning

The acquisition of abstract grammatical constructions represents the maturation of a child’s linguistic productivity.  This productivity means that a child can take constructions that have already been learned and extend the application of the construction by using different words.

One way to identify if the child has utilized a new construction in a productive way is to look for overgeneralizations in the application of the construction.  For instance, things that sound like mistakes in a child’s speech might actually represent the analogical extension of a learned construction into new lexical territory to attempt to communicate something that the child understands, but which is outside of the acquired bank of constructions.  Children sometimes use intransitive verbs in a transitive construction.  While this overgeneralization of the transitive construction is ungrammatical, it does represent an attempt at productive use of learned lexical concepts in learned constructions.  Adults encountering overgeneralizations may be able to determine what the child is attempting to communicate as the actual utterance represents an encoding of a concept with the construction as the foundation of meaning with the intransitive verb as the domain of meaning.  “He falled me down” (Bowerman 1982, cited in Tomasello 2003) is an attested case which indicates that the child has not acquired the appropriate transitive verb to describe the situation of being knocked over, even though the child has acquired the transitive construction.

This is a strategy of innovation in conversation, and may have insight for second language acquisition; when a construction for a particular concept is known, but the lexical particulars are unknown, adapting lexical particulars that account for the general concept and using them in a known construction permits the fielding of the ill-formed utterance and enabling the negotiation of meaning to take place.

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Intention Directing, Self-Reporting, and the Transitive Constructions in Early Childhood Grammar (preschool, 2-5 years old)

Group of children in a primary school in Paris

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Since constructions are learned through usage, constructions are accumulated as individual entities that begin to form collections and these collections of constructions begin to exhibit type frequency.  I think that this type frequency represents an aspect of the nature of child conceptualization, and indeed, it enables the communication of conceptualization in relational behavior from early ages.  This post explores a little about my extension of Tomasello’s analysis of the abstract transitive construction from his book Constructing a Language.

Tomasello divides a list of verbs used in the transitive constructions into four categories: Having Objects, Moving or Transforming Objects, Acting on Objects, and Psychological Activities (150, Tomasello: 2003).  These are not productive constructions until around 3,5; at which point children begin to use the transitive construction with verbs outside of the list presented by Tomasello.  Children use the verbs to indicate Agent and Patient roles in the [Trans-SUBJ Trans-VERB Trans-OBJ] transitive construction.  Looking through the list of verbs presented in Tomasello’s text it is easy to see that children have subjective conceptualizations and are able to begin articulating these ideas.  Verbs like: mean, know, like, help, need, and want represent a complex internal awareness of the interface between the physical/objective world and the mental/subjective world.  This understanding of the descriptive functions of the transitive construction enable the child to foray into relational transactions that involve intention-directing and launch the child into participation in the social world with the means to assert their identity as communicative entities in conversation.  These constructions allow self-reporting of internal states and an articulation of desire that transcends the physical environment.  The child can now make declarations, but also utter imperatives regarding subjective concepts to effect changes in the concrete world.

Interestingly, the early abstract transitive constructions allow the child to place varying degrees of focus on the elements used in the construction.  This is a salience-determining skill that allows the child to manipulate meaning in relation to the Agent and Patient roles, which may be a precursor to learning other constructions like the Passive construction.  Additionally, the emergence of this ability may represent the manifestation of figure-ground distinctions in early child grammar.

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How Novel Constructions Emerge Over Time

Reading Michael Israel’s The Way Constructions Grow taught me some things about how novel constructions actually emerge in a language.  I encourage you to check out this classic article.

The -Way construction in present usage has undertaken a sort of functional compression since its earliest usages in the 1300s.  Three main functions have been historically tracked in the -way construction usage: motion, path creation, and possession.  Motion has been functionally understood in the manner sense

Path creation has been functionally understood as the means sense.  Possession is not dealt with in an in depth manner, and Israel focuses on analyzing the convergence of Motion and Path Creation into the modern -way construction.

Here are two examples:

  • He chewed his way out of that mess (path creation)
  • The dog crawled his way home after getting hit by the truck (motion)

In the beginning the -way construction needed verbs that were related to motion and path creation, but as time went on it began to incorporate verbs that are “marginally or incidentally related to the actual expressed motion.”

The idea is that over time something I call “functional compression” occurred as the generic construction was expanded to include the different functional senses (Motion, Path Creation, Possession), which resulted in an increase in the construction’s productivity.  This process was enabled by the use of analogical extensions

Analogical usage and schema abstraction both provide important implications of CogLing approaches.  Analogical usage corresponds to the Production Principle which states that utterances should sound like things the speaker has heard before.  This is a form of conservatism in the theoretical framework.  Schema abstraction corresponds to the Comprehension Principles which states that representations should capture similarities across experienced usages, and assists innovation and novel extension.  This idea of compression is important for dealing with a vast exposure to similar tokens of a construction.

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Constructional Islands and the Organization of Language in Child Language Acquisition

Wake Island is a volcanic island that has beco...

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When a child’s multi-word utterances are formed around a particular and limited set of linguistic items (either Nouns or Verbs), Tomasello (2003) terms them “Islands” to emphasize how their structured form clustered around a particular Noun or Verb.  Picture the Noun or Verb at the center of the island.  This is not evident in their other forms which might not be organized around a central lexical item.  So Tomasello claims that the Islands are the beginning elements of organization in an “otherwise unorganized language system” [117].  This reflects how children rely on instances and instance-specific manifestations (tokens) to begin forming the basis for mature adult constructions.  Since children are less able to generalize (as adults do when accessing construction types), they must begin to use specific instances, and upon collecting sufficient instances, begin to expand the territory of their constructional islands into full-on adult constructions.  This reflects the child’s ability to maximize frequency in a usage-based approach.  Their exposure to the centers of their constructional islands is not preprogrammed (as is claimed in a UG framework), but emerges from usage.

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Foundational Cognitive Skills that Babies Need in Language Development

Reading on a Friday night

Image by mr brown via Flickr

As mentioned (yesterday’s post) three skills emerge from this acceptance of the triadic perspective:

1) Joint Attention Frame; 2)Intention Reading; and 3) Cultural Learning (Pattern Finding).  Joint Attention is the ability to coordinate attention with another individual on a third entity.  These third entities move from strictly concrete entities to more abstract entities as time goes by.  Without the ability to have a joint attention frame the transfer of knowledge would be impossible and the ability to converse with others in a meaningful way is equally impossible.  The process of intention reading is critical to understanding how others can have their behaviors influenced and likewise how the self can be influenced by the intentions of others.  Although not explicitly stated in Tomasello’s 2003 text, this particular cognitive skill would seem to be the foundation of basic relational strategies like the establishment of trust and credibility.  The final skill is pattern finding which enables cultural learning as the infant observes behavioral, intentional, and relational patterns in the contextual cultural community.  The child develops a sense for how things are done by intentional agents as the child attends to the patterns demonstrated through the everyday lives of those intentional agents with whom the child relates.

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Baby Behaviors Around 9-12 Months Enable “Conversation”

Joint Attention

Image by jeanbaptisteparis via Flickr

Infants move from a strictly dyadic sort of attentional phenomena to a triadic behavioral attention at around 9-12 months of age.  This opens the world for infants to allow them to consider other people as intentional agents with whom it is possible to interact.  This provides a platform for the infants to begin engaging in a relational way as a precursor to conversation including new ways of referencing the world around them and new ways of coordinating attention of the outside intentional agents.  Without this development into the capacity for accessing a triadic perspective children would be unable to operate in a joint attention frame, would be unable to read intention, and would not maximize cultural learning – all of which depend on recognizing the other-than-self as self-motivated.

I added this picture because it represents Joint Attention…now, substitute the three adults for an adult and an infant – this represents the ability to focus in a joint attention frame so as to develop a sense of common ground.  Stay tuned…more to come.

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Bybee’s notion of “exemplar representation”

In exemplar representation situation-specific tokens are decoded and classified as being instance-overlaps with existing exemplars and thereby reinforcing that exemplar instance, or else they are classified as having slight divergence from the existing exemplar, and so the situation-specific token gets classified as a new exemplar.  The idea is that the usage and mapping of meanings are situated best examples; the situated usage of the meaning (i.e., the exemplar) reveals the meaning to be in line with a known exemplar, or to be an extension of an existing exemplar which merits formation of a new exemplar to represent this new situated token.  In this approach, frequency of tokens enables the solidification of exemplars (reinforces knowledge) or enables the expansion of exemplars (increasing knowledge).

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Token Frequency and a Usage-Based Grammar

Token Frequency motivates learning through acknowledgement of repetition and familiarity.  This frequency reflects the type as it is instantiated through the various token usages.  In the Usage-Based perspective the token is the instance that is repeated and subsequently learned, giving rise to the type, and by extension, equating the type with its function.  Type and Token relate functionally and enable an emergence of grammar (without depending on the a priori insistence on Universal Grammar).

A Generative account does not need the idea of repetition to ground the learning of constructions since Universal Grammar already contains the abstraction of constructions.  Generative thought does not arrive at the Type by repetition, as the Type exists in UG, and is made manifest as Tokens in language use.  Token frequency is irrelevant in Generative models, except as it correlates to speaker competence and performance, and as it is paradigmatically selected in the UG compliant syntax.  In this way, Token and Type relate formally to one another and enable rules like PSRs to maximize multiple reinvestment of language.  The Generative understanding of Type:Token is thus driven in a top-down direction, not permitting token frequency to alter the grammar from the ground up since UG dominates from the top of the hierarchy.

This is why I think that the Usage-Based approach more adequately addresses the emergence of grammar through habituation and entrenchment.

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Doing Strategic Planning #4: Adapting Existing Organization-External Materials for Internal Use

GDP Composition By Sector and Labour Force By ...

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This is part of the continuing series about Strategic Planning and outlines the process I am using with a particular organization.  I wanted to briefly explain something that I think is a viable pattern for learning from others, namely, looking at their work and seeing how you need to shape your own work in order to be considered a participating member of the industry.

The organization I am working for is trying to draft a strategic plan that also accounts for decision-making policies in how they invest in different causes.  Many of those causes include development work in places that have the shared features of extreme poverty, drastically different cultural values, and non-Western perspectives (i.e., post-colonial environments).  After listening to the organization talk about their vision and mission and seeing the history of their work and recognizing their place of respect in the development community I felt that it was important to make sure that they were at least in line with the ethical standards of similar industries (especially anthropology).  After looking through different industry codes of ethics I decided that the American Anthropological Association had a superb code of ethics and that without violating copyrights I would use it as a research tool to identify the major domains of concern for ethical conduct.  This is an ongoing process and it will be a few weeks before I am completely content with the results.  My approach will include working with my organization to help them see how the AAA code of ethics can inform their own tactics and methods that emerge to meet the strategic goals.  Basically, I hope that the organization can use this code of ethics to continue to drive their own policy and decision-making.

This is following my personal learning strategy: Collect, Analyze, Present.  And I am teaching the organization to collect the views of others, to analyze how they might apply to their own work, and present them in a format that suits the strategic goals of the organization.

Stay tuned for updates.

Post Script: WordPress has a feature that suggests related articles and before I published this article it suggested this interesting link: http://godspace.wordpress.com/2011/01/12/organic-strategic-planning-a-wave-of-the-future/

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Strategies for Multifaceted Learning/Living

In line with my post on collaboration as the central tenet of virtual city membership, and my posts on multifaceted learning for multifaceted living, I want to propose a few strategies to maximize your impression in a multifaceted world.  There are many more strategies than the six that I provide here, but adopting these in your own life can help to provide a structure to the presentation of self. Make these your own by adapting them to your personality and individual style.  Anyway, here they are:

(1) Use a blank business card. Yes, a blank one.  Get a box of blank cards on a quality card stock and hand-write your card in front of the person you are giving it to.  Include what it was that you were talking about and how to contact you.  Every time I use this technique people remember me.  Part of being a multifaceted worker entails having a host of skills that are not easy to capture on a single business card.  I feel that the generic “consultant” label is so unoriginal and non-descriptive (& I have consulted in four different fields: Italian fashion for Japanese women, Discourse analysis in translation, Strategic planning for small foundations, and Process modeling).  When you write this business card pick a word that epitomizes the skill that you are offering to that one particular person you are giving the card to…CUSTOM MAKE this card on the spot. Continue reading

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Stone Soup, Bouillon Cubes, and Innovation

In my childhood I think it was the fable about Stone Soup that made me start to think about innovation.  As I learned to cook and came further into the world of soup-lore I realized that good soups rely on a reduction of some sort, some kind of richly delicious liquid broth.  In the food world reducing things to something rich and dense is worthy of gustatorial praise.  A brief tour of cookery terms reveal that we have many aspirations to reductions (I am thinking about words like reduction, concentration, syrup, et cetera) and our food science inventions reveal something similar: the bouillon cube.  I think beyond a soup stock, the bouillon cube is the pinnacle achievement of reduction.  It is an abstraction of flavor from the specificity of the ingredients.  But anyway, getting to the point, I don’t like to use bouillon cubes; instead, I make my own soup stocks from scratch in much the same manner as the man who first made stone soup.

For a while now I have been finding myself throwing my vegetable scraps in the freezer so that I can use them to make soup stocks from scratch.  I have recently started cycling through the process on a weekly basis.  Take a look at this week’s table-scraps: Continue reading

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Speed through Penmanship

The English alphabet, both upper and lower cas...

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I never realized this, but apparently cursive writing is supposed to make you write faster.

[I always hated making uppercase Q…]

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Ham Radio was the original Twitter

Amateur radio station of DJ4PI

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So I was driving home last night and saw an old man in his station wagon, I happened to notice that his license plate was his amateur radio call sign.  This promptly reminded me of a recent occurrence at the Linguistic Society of America’s annual meeting where some of my Twitter friends had a “TweetUp” (for the uninitiated, it is akin to a “Meet Up”). In the lobby of the hotel we started to introduce ourselves by our Twitter profile names.  In fact, most people had their profile name on the back of their conference name badge printed like this: “@SportLinguist” (go ahead, follow me).

As my first exposure to this kind of behavior it was an interesting moment for me.  But this is certainly not the first time this has happened for Twitter users, and it is certainly not the firs time it has happened in technological history.  Pre-internet days had people using Citizen Band (CB) radios where everyone had a “Handle” (aka: radio name), and this was the tool that truckers and road-trippers used to stay connected on the lonely highway.  Before the CB was the Amateur Radio and the “Hams” that used them.  In fact, so as not to mislead you, Amateur Radio still has a strong presence and user base, even recently being used in OUTER SPACE at the International Space Station. Continue reading

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Doing Strategic Planning #2: Decision Making and Identifying Policy Material through Discourse Analysis

,., decision making

Image by nerovivo via Flickr

Continuing on the posts about strategic planning, today I want to share how I encourage people to develop policy.  The organization that I am helping had a baseline report drafted by a committee member.  In the baseline report all of the areas of involvement were catalogued and this person identified several gaps in the way that the organization operated.  This person also organized all of the decision-making processes that the organization (a small foundation) uses to conduct day-to-day business and to make decisions about monetary investments & expenditures.

The organization has a long history of successful functioning and I am only a recent player in the story, but the organization is in a state of transformation and part of my role is to bring consistency to the process of adaptation.  Basically this project is sort of the development of a change-management strategy.  This means that a lot of policies will need to be rewritten.  In fact, decision-making is the prime goal of this particular strategic planning project.

Because the organization already had several documents and had recently drafted the baseline report I was able to compare the report to the historical documents and identify statements that would drive the prospective policy.  I borrow a common industry standard called “requirements” that are basically active-voice, single-proposition statements that elucidate a concept that is vital to be considered in the system (the decision-making process in our case).  Another feature of these statements is that they usually contain an auxiliary modal to indicate a degree of forcefulness behind the statement.  Again, the idea is to get at what things are vital to be considered in the decision-making process.

I took the baseline report and identified what the committee member found as criteria for decision-making.  I made a list of these items.  Next, I took the historical decision-making documents and identified where those criteria came from in the historical document and made a list of those locations.  This is like the process of making a concordance of references and is similar to the data management strategies that field linguists and anthropologists use in constructing data tables and dictionaries.

I asked the organization members to look through the documents and draft their own list of these vital statements so that through the process of this shared discourse experience they would become increasingly familiar with the actual textual material that we will be using to draft the strategy and goals in subsequent meetings.  The idea was to get people thinking about what their real needs actually are before they start looking to the future and to do this with an eye toward using policy to keep their strategy planning in line with their vision and mission statement and other relevant brand documentation.

Stay tuned for further updates.

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Inherent Narratives in Ad Hoc Collections

Part of my portfolio includes this project called Weaving Narratives: Possessions = Autobiographies, it is an exploration into how any ad hoc grouping of objects has some kind of inherent narrative, albeit a selected and limited narrative; but it is a narrative nonetheless.

When I was a boy I remember my father keeping a box of items that meant a lot to him.  I keep a box like this too.  The Italian blacksmith that I apprenticed under also kept boxes of items, but on a different scale; when he died I got one of those boxes: we call it a storage unit in American English. Continue reading

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Sample Sentences Using Spradley’s Nine Semantic Relations from The Ethnographic Interview

Cover of "The Ethnographic Interview"

Cover of The Ethnographic Interview

I love James Spradley’s work on ethnographic interviews, componential analysis, taxonomic analysis, and participant observation, but Spradley’s work on semantic analysis has been the most thought-provoking for me theoretically.  Here I list out his nine semantic relationships and give some sample descriptive sentences to show you how the semantic relation describes the two elements in the relationship.  I have to say, however, that none of these sentences are very natural in a natural language kind of way.  In fact, the one concern that I have with Spradley’s view of semantics (from my usage-based cognitive view of language) is that it does not adequately lend itself to a straightforward modeling of the semantics of a natural language sentence.  Instead, if you want to use this for natural language, it has to be on a propositional level.

These semantics are best for modeling culture and the dynamics of a culture.  After all, they were drawn up in a methodology for ethnography.  In the sentences I present below you will find that they have a rigid and non-human sound to them; in fact, I think (and this is my opinion), that if you want to use Spradley’s semantics for anything other than modeling culture, that they are best used in formal system modeling, such as an expert system. Continue reading

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Ad hoc Categorization and the “Virtual City” in Soulwax’s “Part of the Weekend Never Dies”

2 Many DJs (Stephen and David Dewaele / Soulwa...

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Recently I started watching one of my all-time-favorite documentaries again, Soulwax’s “Part of the Weekend Never Dies“; I was struck by a particular film sequence that captured the essence of what I would call a “virtual city” that embodies part of the notion of ad hoc categorization. Continue reading

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Reflexivity and Recursion in Soulwax’s “Part of the Weekend Never Dies”

Cover of "Nite Versions"

Cover of Nite Versions

Since I am posting a lot about Soulwax this month, I thought I should include this clarifying snippet about the differences between the various acts which the Dewaele brothers lead.  In “Part of the Weekend Never Dies” Stephen explains these acts to a Mexican female presenter who is interviewing him about the show:

[00:03:50] Presenter: “First of all, what’s the, can you tell the audience like what’s the difference between 2ManyDJs, Soulwax, or Radio Soulwax?” Continue reading

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What does Soulwax’s website, DJing, & Construction Grammar have in common?

Soulwax’s website extends an invitation for viewers to participate in DJing as they explore the website.  From my first exposure this has been an amazing experience.  The intuitive guided navigation doubles as a loading of the clips so that your browser cache holds the clip for later manipulation in the mixing.  If you patiently experience each of the clips instead of navigating away from the site, you will get the chance to mix the video loops and beats by clicking your mouse. Continue reading

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Slips of the Tongue…

So I am not sure why this happened, but it did:

Last week I was introducing myself to the class I am TA-ing this semester and after I listed my academic qualifications I added some content about my personal life, specifically “I’m married, I own a house, and I have a dog.”  With that I took my seat.

The crazy thing is I DO NOT HAVE A DOG.

I have no idea why that came out of my mouth.  It seemed natural, it seemed true, and it seemed to flow with the information I was sharing, but as soon as the words left my mouth I knew it wasn’t true.

Does anyone have an explanation for this?  Leave a comment…

Constructions Are “Objects” that Emerge from Patterns of Usage

Construction Grammar is like DJing electronic music.  This is what I mean: in the same way that electronic music is kind of object-oriented in that it takes elements from different pieces of music (loops) and combines the different loops so that they begin to form a new cohesive piece of music, language embodies this principle in its essential nature: we take different pieces of language (constructions) and combine them to form new cohesive utterances.  Constructions in this sense are “Objects”. Continue reading

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Why I Believe in Cut & Paste as a Design Strategy

Scissors

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Cut & Paste is not just a keyboard function.  In fact, R.G. Collingwood coined the term in the mid 1940’s in his book The Idea of History, but being a more formal speaker of a more formal ancestor of colloquial English he called it the “scissors and paste” method and was critical of it as a tool in historical method (33, Collingwood: 1946).

Nonetheless he did use the term and since then it has come to be used rather frequently as a tool in questionable secondary research, or as a way to validate and situate a claim in a historical context.  I think Collingwood’s problem with scissors and paste was that it was just a patchwork manipulation of existing work by people who were not historical eyewitnesses, and therefore outside of the bounds of science.  In essence, what was cut out and pasted lacked appropriate context and proper lineage, in fact, that has become a problem: it is called plagiarism. Continue reading

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Guest Post: The Digital Polis – Nicholas Carson Miller

I invited Nicholas Carson Miller to guest post on the shape of a particular internet culture…I hope you enjoy his work -SportLinguist

I. The New Prehistory

We can’t go ask ancient peoples what was going on when they decided to get together and start building cities. Frustratingly, none of the folks involved in the development of prehistoric communities are still around to ask and weren’t kind enough to leave detailed ethnographic and historical accounts of their experiences. Shame on them. We can, however, connect to the internet and observe the development of a new kind of community.

Early humans, tiring of wandering and hunting alone, began living around one another, trying their hands at farming, trading necessities and surpluses, and finding increasingly productive and complex ways to protect and govern the communities that developed. Early internet users logged on alone, visiting web pages and sending limited communications—but then a need for specialized communal activities lead to email lists, chat rooms, social networks, and, most interestingly, forums.

These internet communities, especially certain infamous and influential forums such as 4chan, Gaia Online, and Something Awful, are beginning to exhibit fascinating cultural trends that are to me reminiscent of early city-states. The development of the culture of these communities should be taken as a possible reflection of the development of real-world communities and is conveniently occurring right before our eyes at a highly accelerated rate. Continue reading

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Doing Strategic Planning #1: Vision & Mission Statements

Post-It

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One of the services that I provide is to help small organizations and groups do strategic planning.  My approach is to shepherd the group through the process and get them thinking about how the different elements of a strategic plan actually work together to drive decision-making policy.  I don’t like to get caught up in mechanistic template driven planning, but really try to understand (with ethnographic insight) the soul of the organization and let the strategy emerge through a process of self-identification.  If you know anything about my research or my art, narrative is a key element in my beliefs about identity.  I like to bring that into the planning process.

All that to say, this morning I was helping a committee define a 5 year strategic plan that will account for a variety of goals and investments.  After I walked away from the first meeting I thought that this might be an appropriate thing to blog about since I feel that it relates to just about any organization whether it is individual as enterprise, research programs, community development organizations, et cetera.  In fact, it possibly even relates to the ways in which we manage ad hoc committees. Continue reading

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Weaving Narratives: Possessions = Autobiographies

I recently created a short interview about my art project “Weaving Narratives” where I describe the process of reading objects that people own.  I hope you check it out and let me know what you think in the comment section [click the picture to view the film].

Also, weave your own narrative using the photo-documentation for this project [a free download to use in your own creative process].

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Learn to Speak Czech via Twitter…amazing!

So, I came across Dominik Lukes’ truly amazing and novel use of Twitter – he teaches you to speak a language one tweet a day [http://twitter.com/#!/Czechly]…it has an accompanying blog [http://czechly.com/] and is truly impressive.  Follow him right now: http://twitter.com/czechly

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Your Language Constrains How You Can Think & Speak

When a specialist tries to talk about their specialist view of the world with a non-specialist it rarely ever goes smoothly.  In fact, usually, the specialist either talks at too specific a level for the non-specialist to comprehend, let alone understand, or the specialist talks at too general a level to do the subject any justice.

The same thing happens whenever you take any two people who belong to two different generations, disciplines, or subculture.  In fact, this same type of miscommunication happens whenever you take two very similar people and try to get them to relate, there are gross miscalculations in the process of decoding each other’s meaning. Continue reading

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My Top 10 All-Time-Favorite Formal Linguistics Books

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Occasionally I read a good Generative book to balance my thinking in linguistic theory…I am drawn to the ideas of formalism, usually when I am thinking about how to develop anthropological linguistic approaches for Cognitive Linguistics field work in Non-Indo-European languages, but also because I like the feel of generative thought a little.

Here are some of the generative books that I love the best:

  1. Lexical Categories – Baker
  2. Optimality Theory – Kager
  3. Phonology in Generative Grammar – Kenstowicz
  4. Tools for Analyzing the World’s Languages – Bickford
  5. Introduction to Typology – Whaley
  6. Language Form and Language Function – Newmeyer

And then there are a class of books that are in accord with generative thought (i.e., modular mind) that I find to be classic inspiration for the study of conceptualization:

  1. The Society of Mind – Minsky
  2. What Is Thought – Baum
  3. Consciousness and the Computational Mind – Jackendoff
  4. A Prosodic Model of Sign Language Phonology – Brentari

If you are a Cognitive Linguist and you are wondering for some good places to start studying Generative/Transformational/Formal Linguistics this list should be a good primer for you.  It covers all of the modules: the lexicon, phonology, syntax, morphology, meaning/semantics; as well as touching on topics like: theory of mind, compositionality, categorization, typology, rewrite rules, distribution and word order, signed languages, development, and gesture.  Enjoy!

If you are a Generative Linguist stumbling across this post and wonder where to begin reading about Cognitive Linguistics, please go to the menu of this page and select “CogLing 100 Book List” which will get you going in the right direction.  Bon Chance!

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Correction about the Goldberg Book in CogLing 100 book list…

I got a comment today on the CogLing 100 Book List page from a person with a slightly suspicious email address that I didn’t want to publish, but the content of the comment was very appropriate and I wanted to post that comment content and my response:

Hi,

Great list! It’s very balanced across different approaches and viewpoints.

I just wanted to point out a few corrections:

1. Lexical Semantics (#8) was written by Cruse, not Croft.
2. Adele Goldberg did not write a book called Cognitive Linguistics (#17). I think you mean Constructions: A Construction Grammar approach to argument structure.
3. Taylor’s Linguistic Categorization is listed twice (#19 and #57).

Also, I think Croft’s Radical Construction Grammar should be on this list.

My response:

Thank you! I did some of this list from memory, which explains the Croft/Cruse mix-up…also, according to Routledge.com, Adele Goldberg is the editor for a series volume called Cognitive Linguistics [http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9780415574938/] due out June 2011. Although I haven’t read it, I included it because the length of the book suggests that it will be a definitive work…not to mention the fact that it is full of primary readings from major theorists in CogLing.

Thanks for catching the duplicate Taylor entry, I changed #57 to the Goldberg book you suggested.

As for Croft’s Radical Construction Grammar, I have added it as #101.

Thanks for helping me make these corrections!

– R

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Overcoming Self-Consciousness Around Linguists

[NB: I have told this story before, but this time I have a better understanding that I think is worth sharing.]

I had an experience a few years ago, a woman stood in my kitchen and told me that I didn’t know how to pronounce “adjective” correctly.

She insisted that my pronunciation was incorrect, in fact, she became quasi-belligerent trying to display how my pronunciation of adjective was so ludicrous that it was inconceivable that I would try to assert that I knew how to pronounce it. Continue reading

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beware of the neuromarketers…?

Animation of an MRI brain scan, starting at th...

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While many of us like neuroscience as a discipline, many other people do not. Accordingly, I try to give session to both sides of the neuroscience fan club.  Here is a link that works to inform people about the dangers of exploiting the study of the mind and the brain.

I love this fMRI image sequence from Wikipedia, it starts at the base of the brain and builds upwards toward the crown…it is a fascinating look at something you don’t always get to see, and/or think about…

Anyway, back to that link, read what Commercial Alert has to say about Neuromarketing:

Neuromarketing is a controversial new field of marketing which uses medical technologies such as functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) — not to heal, but to sell products.

We see three big potential problems with neuromarketing: (1) increased incidence of marketing-related diseases; (2) more effective political propaganda; and, (3) more effective promotion of degraded values.

We oppose the use of neuromarketing for corporate or political advertising.

While I don’t take political sides on this blog, I should mention that I like science for the sake of science and that I don’t like the exploitation of science by non-scientists.  What are your thoughts about this?

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What I got for Christmas…

Integrantes de Daft Punk, banda francesa de mú...

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  1. Daft Punk’s film “Electroma”
  2. Daft Punk’s album “Human After All”
  3. Gilles Fauconnier’s & Mark Turner’s “The Way We Think: Conceptual Blending and the Mind’s Hidden Complexities”
  4. Stephen C. Levinson’s “Space in Language and Cognition: Explorations in Cognitive Diversity”
  5. Stephen C. Levinson & David Wilkin’s “Grammars of Space: Explorations in Cognitive Diversity”

Sweet!

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Epenthesis, Truncation, and Phonetic Exploitation in Graffiti

Ridl und Crow

Image by liquidnight via Flickr

While riding the train to school last week I noticed that a lot of the graffiti contains allusions to a sort of folk-phonological understanding of phonemics.

This is not a criticism at all, in fact, from my usage-based perspective I find this to be a delightful exploitation of the English phonemic system…if you think about it, these tags reflect more of an understanding of the phonetic structure of language than do their “proper” & “grammatically correct” (ugh, I hate that concept) representations.

Take these into consideration: Ridl, HEK, HEDAKE, ACERT, from a linguistic perspective, these are pretty clever…even if you hate graffiti, you have to acknowledge that they are clever abstractions.

Anyway, I thought I would point it out…

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CONTAINER Is an Ontological Metaphor

Ontological Metaphors are metaphors that give shape to abstract concepts and even contribute to the structure of Primary Metaphors.  CONTAINER is one of those metaphors. Continue reading

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Una chiste para ti….

Pollitos de colores!!

Image by YoSeLiN via Flickr

Una dia el pollito va a la casa blanca y toca la puerta

hay una persona abre la puerta y dice: “¿que queirres?”

y el pollito respondon, “necesito hablar con el presidente por favor”

y la persona que abre la puerta dice “el presidente no esta aqui, seran en Ohio”

y el pollito respondon “¿esta enojado? ¿con migo?”


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On the Second Law of Thermodynamics: a quote from one of my favorite books

“Sometimes initial conditions can exert such an all-pervasive influence that they create the impression that a new type of law is acting. The most familiar case is that of the so-called “second law of thermodynamics” which stipulates that the entropy, or level of disorder, of a confined physical system cannot decrease with the passage of time. Thus, we see coffee cups breaking accidentally into pieces, but we never see a cup re-form from the fragments. Our desks naturally degenerate from order to disorder but never vice versa. However, the laws of mechanics that govern the manner in which changes can occur allow the time-reverse of each of these combinations. Thus a world in which china fragments coalesce into Staffordshire china cups and untidy desks evolve steadily into tidy ones violates no law of Nature. The reason that things are invariably seen to proceed from bad to worse in closed systems is because the starting conditions necessary to manifest order-increase are fantastically unusual and the probability that they arise in practice is tiny. The fragments of china would all need to be moving at precisely the right speeds and in just the right directions so as to convene to form a cup. In practice there are vastly more ways for a desk to go from order to disorder than from disorder to order. Thus, it is the high probability of realizing the rather “typical” conditions from which disorder is more likely to ensue that is responsible for the illusion of a disorder-creating law of Nature.”

[52-53, John D. Barrow – Theories of Everything ]

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My Analysis of the Blend in “My Karma Ran Over My Dogma”

So I wanted to share my analysis of a blend that occurs on a bumper sticker.  This is a past homework assignment of mine, so keep that in mind as you read it. Anyway, it is not a complete blending analysis, but it was sufficient to cover the basics.  Enjoy.

Continue reading

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Cognitive Mindfulness # 18

If Aristotle had spoken Chinese or Dakota, his logic and his categories would have been different. – Fritz Mauthner

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What Is a Digital City? It is Interconnected Collaboration and Flexibility

When you hear the words “Digital City” what comes to mind?  Is it a virtual city created from ad hoc groups of people converging in an electronic marketplace?  Is it an actual physical city boasting all the amenities of technology? Or is it a combination of the two?  For me, when I hear “Digital City” I usually find myself thinking about the third option, an actual place that sustains a physical population but who are networked to conduct virtual lives that interface with physical lives on a perpetual basis. Continue reading

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Think Like a Bacterium: OSMOS, Naïve Quorum Sensing, & the iPad

I was recently sucked into playing OSMOS on my iPad.  I never play video games (usually I am too busy: wife, art, school, work) but I did happen to spend four hours straight playing this game over winter break.  This game synthesizes math, physics, biology, conceptualization and human enhancement.   Continue reading

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“Cleanliness Is Next to Godliness”

I remember reading a book about Germans that an anthropologist I knew in England let me borrow for the day. The most striking part of the book, at the time, was the recount of the author’s experience of seeing a dusty car in a parking lot on which some witty passer-by had written in the dirt that the condition of the car was the condition of that person’s inner life; filthy, unkempt, and disorganized.

The state of the artifacts of our life reflect and betray our true self.

My wife recently found a box of her childhood belongings at her mother’s house in the back of the storage room. She opened the box and looked at her cherished childhood possessions – doll clothes from when she lived in Thailand…still clean and folded. She told me that she took care of the few things she owned because she had so little. I love how my wife reflects her inner self onto her outer belongings. She really cares about things.

The state of the artifacts of our life reflect and betray our true self.

This past Sunday, my wife and I were out for brunch, and at the table behind us there was a woman talking about a recent trip to somewhere in Europe – noting how a storage bin like a rubbermaid cost 35 euros. The woman kept going on an on about how expensive it was to buy a box, how she gets them here for 5 dollars. And all I could think about was how much more neat and tidy Europeans are because of how expensive it really is to by crappy stuff. Who really needs the things that they plan to keep in a box?

I will say it again, the state of the artifacts of our life reflect and betray our true self.

He who has ears to hear, let him hear.

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How I learned to make Instant Coffee taste BETTER than Properly Brewed Coffee

When I was living in West Africa I would wake up around 5 every morning, step outside my door and put my kettle on to boil on this fantastic little green kerosene stove:

I would sit and listen in the morning silence as the water heated in the aluminum kettle.  As the water started to rumble it would get to the point of pre-nucleation as bubbles would start to form around the wall of the kettle and a ring of bubbles mimicking the flame below would begin to emerge upwards from the bottom of the pot and release into steam on the surface of the water.  It was at this point that I would take the kettle off the stove, the point just before boiling when the tiny bubbles were just about to percolate and pour the water into my mug of granulated Nescafe. Continue reading

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finally a post remotely related to sports…

I admit it, the “Sport” in “SportLinguist” might lead you to believe that I write about sports.  Well, I don’t…but this automated software does write about sports.  In fact, all you have to do is type in some stats and out pops a sports story/narrative.  “Robo-Journalism” (as they call it) still has some glitches, apparently it has problems tracking reference: “…In one passage, the software lost track of who had beaten whom…” The article doesn’t say explicitly, but I would guess the problem lies in figuring out anaphora and cataphora as concepts.  Anyway, check it out, it is a good read and who doesn’t like robots?…functionally that’s what this is after all.

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AC/DC-inspired examples of the “-way” construction

Angus Young, lead guitarist of the hard rock b...

Image via Wikipedia

Theway construction is a structure that expresses a range of ideas like “manner” in relation to an activity that follows a path.  The construction is elaborated by accessing an AGENT/Trajector, using a verb with a possessive pronoun and the word way, and the landmark/domain through or over which the AGENT moves.  The distribution pattern for the -way construction is: X Y its way Z, or,  NP VP -way PP.

Take a look at these five examples:

  • Bon Scott played his way all across Sydney.
  • Angus Young schoolboy’d his way through every concert.
  • Hells Bells tolled its way to the top as AC/DC reunited following Bon Scott’s tragic death.
  • Brian Johnson Bon-Scott-ed his way into the hearts of AC/DC fans.
  • “Dirty Deeds Done Dirt Cheap” threatened its way to the top with its tough guy personae.

You will immediately notice that there are not just canonical verbs being used in this construction, “schoolboy’d” and “Bon-Scott-ed” are not typically considered verbs, but functionally in these cases they are acting as verbs expressing manner.

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Our Heads Get in the Way

If all systems self-organize, do opponents to particular perspectives only prolong the discord by vocalizing their antagonism?

  • Evolutionist antagonizes Creationist.
  • Pro-life antagonizes Pro-choice.
  • Et cetera, ad nauseam.

If both sides took a day off from playing God, wouldn’t it be more likely that self-organization would begin to fall into place?

Think about it, skeptic.

Perhaps the person who cannot look beyond the defense of their apparently certain stance is only entrenched and embittered by the fact that you would not listen to what they have to say with respect or dignity.

Do you listen to people?

Systems can appear to be in contradiction to one another when in fact they can be quite complementary. The problem is that people are afraid to be wrong.

Are you afraid to be wrong?

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New Blog in my Links Section

I wanted to let you know about a new blog that I have listed: “Chasing Linguistics” and deals with Cognitive Pragmatics among other things.  Take a visit: http://chasinglinguistics.wordpress.com/

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HighLevel Issues in EthnoBotany; Interdisciplinary Cross-Pollination

My Shrunken Head - 2008 - RyanDewey.org

I started getting interested in botany during my undergraduate years when I wanted to complement the technical linguistics training with a tempered understanding of some practical skills.  I have always planned on doing anthropological linguistics and in most locations people grow their own food; learning about botany and horticulture would be good for my survival.  And since talking with people about plants is a great way to collect data I wanted to at least have the competency to grow plants and have some familiarity with the lives of plants.  I took a job working summers and breaks at a 100-year-old tropical aquatics greenhouse where I learned to cultivate Lotus, Victoria Regina, Water lilies, marginal plants, and how to raise fish and maintain healthy ecological systems.  This got me interested in algae, protists, lichens, mosses, ferns, et cetera…

Even earlier in life, during primary school I took part in a Naturalist Aid program which taught me about the medicinal uses of plants, biodiversity, and ecology.  I guess my first encounters with plants was really from a pedagogical perspective on ethnobotany. Continue reading

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Preludes for Memnon – Aiken, Consciousness, and Ontology

I have a new link in my sidebar and I wanted to tell you a little about it.  One of my three favorite poets is Conrad Aiken, a sincere and highly lucid poet of consciousness.  Currently I am working on a paper about the metaphors of trees in ontologies (expect a post mid February) and a segment of Aiken’s Preludes for Memnon are included in a section using cognitive poetics to extract the conceptualization structures in his work.

Anyway, check out this site dedicated to Aiken’s work: http://preludesformemnon.blogspot.com/

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Infants Prefer Animacy that Exhibits Intentionality

My wife and I were at an extended family party last night and as the night wore on we found ourselves sitting at a table and she was holding my cousin’s newborn girl.  I always try to amaze my wife with my knowledge of babies, mostly because she doesn’t expect me to know anything about them (I only really experienced one baby entering my nuclear family) and she is the one with actual solid experience with babies (she has been a part of 10 or so births and knows a lot about babies in general, and comes from a large Irish-Catholic family).  So anytime I have something intelligent to say about infants it always comes as a surprise. Continue reading

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A quote from “Working and Thinking on the Waterfront”

Our originality shows itself most strikingly not in what we wholly originate but in what we do with that which we borrow from others. If this be true it is obvious that second-rate writers or artists may stimulate our originality more than first-rate ones, since we borrow more readily from the former.

Eric Hoffer, December 8, 1958 – Working and Thinking on the Waterfront

I changed my Twitter account…

Follow me for links to interesting stuff around the web and post updates.

http://twitter.com/SportLinguist

Thanks!

SWEET! My paper made a Top Ten Download List!

I checked my email this morning and received a message telling me that my recently distributed paper “Figure-Ground Organization in Attention and Construal” made it on a top ten list for downloads yesterday from both the Cognition & the Arts eJournal and the Cognitive Linguistics: Cognition, Language, Gesture eJournal…Awesome!

I hope you check it out! http://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=1714063.

 

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How I know it is finals week around the world

I have been laughing to myself each time that I go into the dashboard for this blog because I am noticing some fantastic trends.

Over this past week the viewing patterns for particular posts has been fascinating.

These are so noticeable to me because typically (the default/ground) these particular posts do not get viewed, so when they are viewed, it is a marked instance, and the page load becomes figural in the figure-ground distinction sense.  The page load is attended to as figure.

For instance:

  • I have received about 25 hits from the same city in India all of which came through a Google query for something like: “symbolic function of language” and they all view the same blog post about the communicative and symbolic functions of language.
  • I have received a handful of hits from another city in the United States, (again, all from the same city) looking for “Dialogue in Stoppard” which takes them to my page on “Ground-before-Figure in Tom Stoppard’s Arcadia”.
  • Et cetera…

This is the benefit of good SEO…but that is not my point.

My point is that I know that students around the world are doing their homework and are Googling topics that they find in the questions hoping to get an answer from the web; hopefully I get credit in their bibliographies.

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Delicious Holiday Recipe: Nut & Poppy Seed Roll (Found Text)

I wanted to share this recipe that I got from my great-grandmother (from Zagreb, Republic of Croatia)…I grew up eating this deliciousness and consequently I have become a smart scientist.

http://ryandewey.org/unfold_8.html

Do you like food?

Then you might like an upcoming post series that I am doing in 2011. Subscribe to my updates.

A taste of what is to come:

  • Recipes that I have collected living in the South Pacific, West Africa, and other exciting places
  • A series of posts that deal with the cognitive science in cookery, and
  • Posts looking at how attention works in gustatory domains.
  • Anthropological perspectives on the tools and processes of bread-making
  • SUPER SUPER COOL!  Subscribe!
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The First Shall Be Last: A shift from First Person to Third Person in the Scientific Enterprise

I was reading this article by Ray Kurzweil and immediately connected with an idea that he expressed which I have been trying to articulate over the past year or so. He said that basically, in science there is no first person, there is only the third person. Continue reading

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A Micro Approach to Sociology & Identity – SocialPsych

I have a new website listed in the links section, it is a project by a doctoral candidate in social psychology.  Check out his website, follow him on Twitter & like him on Facebook

“Sociological social psychology is a micro approach of sociology that relates macro level social phenomena on the individual level. This discipline of sociology pulls strongly from symbolic interactionism. Special topics in sociologically oriented social psychology are social inequality, group behavior, social change, socialization, self and identity.” [socialpsych.org]

I hope you check it out!

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Timecard For My Future

I am going through the planning process for blog posts for 2011 and as a foreshadowing to a couple of guest posts (one on astrosociology and another on the singularity) I thought I would post a link to the Timecard For My Future which is a list of timers set to remind me of things I need to do over then next several thousand years…if Aubrey de Grey gets his way.  Enjoy!

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Dead Sea Scrolls to be available electronically on Google

This is old news, but happy news nonetheless…its about freakin’ time.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-11594674

I remember when they went on their first world tour…

To the woman on the RTA train, there are more than 3 meanings for “present”

As I was riding the train home today I overheard a conversation that made me realize again how people view as odd the things which the linguist views as normal.

The woman behind me was commenting to the man she was riding with that she thinks it is funny that there are three different meanings for “present” (i.e., present [noun], a gift; present [adjective], in attendance;  and present [verb] to introduce something). Continue reading

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Post-Colonial Thought in Literature, Ethics, and Project Design

I wanted to let you know about an online ejournal about Post-Colonial Literature and Culture, here it is:

Post-Colonial Studies in Literature & Culture eJournal

Having formerly worked in two former colonies (one in Africa and the other in the South Pacific), and having lived in Hawai’i which was also colonized, I am interested pragmatically in the ideas of Post-Colonialism.

While I am on the topic, I want to address post-colonial thought not only in literature, but also in project design for development and similar enterprises.

Furthermore, I am interested in how this model informs the ethics of project design and local ownership in situations of development.

I think it is great that development has gained currency with non-development workers, but I don’t want to see industries like micro-finance become another tool of Colonialism for the lay-person.  Avoiding a ‘savior complex’ is part of ensuring the stability of a project in a post-colonial context.

More to come….

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Borrowing Tools Across Disciplines: Blacksmithing to Linguistics

I am going to be exploring what it means to incorporate accrued extralinguistic experiences into professional practice as a cognitive linguist and to start it off I wanted to post an introductory post on my experiences as a blacksmith.

Some of you might know that I spent some time working as an apprentice to an old Italian blacksmith and that much of what I learned from him has been a guiding framework for thinking about problems through the lens of an orthogonal discipline.

For now, I want you to think about something that occurs in all professions, the development of professional wisdom which is reduced into phrasal algorithms that are like bullion-cubes for making meaning.  In other words, the way a discipline perpetuates its knowledge is through building either the recipes or the ingredients for how to do things.  From my experience in blacksmithing, these recipes have been captured in Italian proverbs and English literary metaphors.

Think about those metaphors: “too many irons in the fire”, “lose your temper”, et cetera, I guess these blacksmithing metaphors probably emerged from failures to adhere to the two Italian phrases I heard repeated most in my shop:

pian piano vai lontano

slowly slowly you go far

and

Il monici dicono in questo mondo di via vera multa paciencia

In this world, the monks say that you have to have a lot of patience

If you don’t have patience you forge ahead, ignoring the fact that you have too many irons in the fire to work them in a reasonable amount of time.

If instead of trying to rush through a process (like tempering a knife blade or a chisel) take it easy, go slowly, it will get you farther that rushing (working too quickly could cause a tool to lose its temper).

I spent a lot of my time writing during the evenings while I was a blacksmith.  During that time I wrote this procedural essay describing the process of forging steel (in this case it is using an acetylene torch instead of my blacksmith’s hearth…but forging is forging.  It is actually the prologue to a book about how the creative process of artists and scientists are parallel.  Anyway, read the prologue.

One of my favorite aspects of blacksmithing is the act of harnessing fire to work metal into a desired shape, I am going to explore this further and describe in future posts how this is similar to the cognitive processes of dynamic construal.  Stay tuned.

Post Script for Metalworkers:

If you got to this page because you are looking for advice about blacksmithing or are interested in toolmaking check out The Complete Modern Blacksmith…and take a look at my Amazon book list for metalworking.

Post Post Script for people interested in other people’s blacksmithing experiences:

Here is a woman who wanted to learn blacksmithing to “keep making history live” [I love it!]. Check out her blog about history and blacksmithing.

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Medicine in the underdeveloped world

In line with this post (My Jungle Medical Kit) I wanted to pass this link regarding establishing expedient medical clinics in remote locations.

These resources come from the Hesperian Foundation, a non-profit organization dedicated to publishing healthcare related books and documents.

Go to their webpage and check out some of these titles:

  • “Where There Is No Doctor”
  • “Where There Is No Dentist” 
  • ”A Book for Midwives”
  • “Water for Life”
  • “A Community Guide for Environmental Health”
  • “Where Women Have No Doctor”
  • “The Story of Stuff with Annie Leonard”

There is even a section on resources for Cholera in Haiti.  Beyond Haitian Creole, many of these resources are available in Urdu, Sindhi and Spanish.

And they are all FREE. 100%.  You can buy paper copies of the books, but these can all be downloaded with ease.

Every document is high quality.  In fact, I have used these with development workers I have helped equip.  These are real world, real genuine content resources.  Some of these are 500 page books on how to establish a medical clinics (et cetera) and train indigenous leadership with the skills necessary to replicate the model.

One of the features of these documents that impressed me (from the vantage point of a professional student of cultures) is that they are not books that ignore the differences in cultural practices around medicine and social attitudes toward the illness and healing process.

Considering that in Western medicine we view disease as a pathological category, illness as an individual category, and sickness as a social category, these books skillfully navigate the ways in which different societies interpret these cultural experiences.

Check it out, especially if you work/live somewhere that medical resources are limited.

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Tome vs. Tablet: How the iPad Facilitated My Move From Digital Immigrant to Digital Native

So there was a time, not too long ago, that I couldn’t stand reading .pdfs on a monitor.  It didn’t matter if it was on a desktop or a laptop; I hated reading electronic files.  I bought my wife a Kindle about a year ago, it did nothing for me since I don’t get into personal gadgetry.  Lest you think me a Luddite, I am a fan of technology – I love electronic music, I routinely oscillate between Daft Punk and Bjork for my robot music fix; I love the internet; I love the hopes of AI, NBIC, and have my own space odyssey from time to time. And I have an archive of obsolete technology, less from nostalgia than from a fascination with how “artifactual” (yes, I made that word up) things die. My point is this, I consider myself to be pretty open to technology, but I have one tiny little problem:

I have a little too thick of a digital immigrant accent.

My wife was complaining about how much paper I had around the house because I was always printing articles that I had to read…and, well, if they are good articles I felt compelled to save them…(hint, my accent: I STILL print!)  Ugh.

Something happened though…

  1. One of the courses in my MA program had a 871 page “Introduction” text-book.
  2. I got sick of carrying it on the train.
  3. I bought an iPad 2 weeks into the semester and got the e-book version.

INSTANTLY my ability to comprehend electronic text increased by a factor of probably 800,000 or so.

INSTANTLY.

Do you have any idea why?

I do.

I was able to INSTANTLY increase my text comprehension in electronic documents because of ideas in theoretical frameworks like EMBODIED COGNITION and ENACTIVISM.  Heard of them?

Essentially, for me, a life-long reader of books in a particular orientation to my ocular path, namely flat on a table or holding it on my lap with the spine of the book resting perpendicular to the spine of my back.  I was so used to reading “important” text in a particular orientation that when I had to read electronic text which was in front of my face (LCD & laptop screens) I was not retaining the information with the same level of quality.  Hence, my electronic reading skills were relatively poor despite the fact that most books that I read are denser and more complex than what most people conceive of when they think of abstract math.

Buying an iPad changed everything.

Now, I know I am going to get a bunch of SPAM comments because of this post, and I will probably also get some flak for my endorsement of the iPad…I am not making any claims about whether or not it is useful for anything else…(actually, I do have 3 complaints: printing is near impossible, the version of Pages is a light version that doesn’t retain formating when synced with the desktop, &  the file tree is your iTunes file structure on your desktop)…I don’t really care about this stuff; over time it will improve.

All I care about is that I am able to read electronic text with complete fluency and have increased my reading speed in the process.

I even do my remote work through the iPad, it is completely flexible for some of the stuff I have to do and I have increased my productivity by a margin of 28-33% depending on the wi-fi strength.

If I had to do it over again I would certainly buy it again.

 

 

 

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Ground-before-Figure in Dramatic Dialogue: Tom Stoppard’s Arcadia

As a feature of figure-ground organization, there is inherent flexibility in how the figure is aligned with the ground.  In light of evidence that permits a ground to precede a figure in the flow of information, it is appropriate to view this patterning happening in discourse and to ask how it enhances or disrupts communication.  Recall Chen’s model of Ground-before-Figure:

 

“There are times when a speaker wants her hearer to locate and/or pay attention to an entity (figure) in a location (ground), but the hearer does not know the existence of that figure in the ground.  So the speaker presents the ground first by anchoring it with a landmark that is established most often in the previous linguistic context and sometimes in the discourse context.  This order of figure/ground presentation invites the hearer to search the ground in order to locate and/or to focus on the figure.” [48, Chen, 2003] (Italics in original)

 

In light of Chen’s definition, consider this interchange in 1809 between two characters: Thomasina (age 13), and her tutor Septimus, (age 17) in Tom Stoppard’s play Arcadia:

 

Thomasina: Septimus, do you think God is a Newtonian?

Septimus: An Etonian? Almost certainly, I’m afraid.  We must ask your brother to make it his first enquiry.

Thomasina: No, Septimus, a Newtonian.  Septimus! Am I the first person to have thought of this?

Septimus: No.

Thomasina: I have not said yet.

Septimus: ‘If everything from the furthest planet to the smallest atom of our brain acts according to Newton’s law of motion, what becomes of free will?’

Thomasina: No.

Septimus: God’s will.

Thomasina: No.

Septimus: Sin.

Thomasina:(Derisively) No!

Septimus: Very well.

Thomasina: If you could stop every atom in its position and direction, and if your mind could comprehend all the actions thus suspended, then if you were really, really good at algebra you could write the formula for all the future; and although nobody can be so clever as to do it, the formula must exist just as if one could.

Septimus: (Pause) Yes. (Pause.) Yes, as far as I know, you are the first person to have thought of this.

 

Thomasina wants Septimus to consider whether or not what she is about to say has ever been thought of before.  Rather than burdening Septimus with a heavily preposed tag question, she presents first the question and intends to immediately follow the question with her assertion.  This initial question cataphorically references the assertion she is yet to make.  Septimus, not recognizing the attempt at conserving cognitive energy interprets the cataphora as anaphora and proceeds to respond according to his construal of anaphora.

Thomasina’s goal is to invite Septimus to search the ground by accessing the question frame (that content questions have some marker which indicates interrogativity plus some content that is unsolved for whatever is indicated by interrogativity).  Septimus is not yet aware of the existence of the figure (the content in question) within the ground (the framing of the question).  The confusion between the construed referent of the deictic “this” in “Septimus! Am I the first person to have thought of this?” results from the differences in anchoring the deictic: Septimus anchors it anaphorically, which Thomasina intends to be anchored as cataphora, noted by her exclamation “I have not said yet.”

Bibliography:

Chen, Rong (2003) English inversion, a ground-before-figure construction, Berlin: Mouton De Gruyter

Stoppard, Tom (1994) Arcadia, Faber and Faber

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A blog about New Testament Greek Discourse

I came across this great post today while I was searching for people who have cited Stephen Wallace’s work on Figure-Ground organization.  It is a blog that looks at New Testament Greek Discourse.  It looks like he might have slight cognitive leanings…I’m going to check it out further but I thought I would pass it on for now.  Check it out.

I just bought Lawrence Roberts’ “How Reference Works” for $0.99

I am writing a paper on attention and construal and in my reading I came across Lawrence Roberts’ 1993 work: How Reference Works -Explanatory Models for Indexicals, Descriptions, and Opacity; I didn’t want to have to renew it from the library so I bought it used on Amazon.

It cost me $0.99 for a clean unread copy.

$0.99!

It came in the mail last night.  I opened it and saw that it was a signed first edition that the author gave to someone who had helped him with the book.  I know because I looked at the names in the acknowledgement section.  It could be one of four people.  Importantly, it could be from another researcher whose work influenced me when I was interested in AI.

I just think it is kind of crazy.

 

Figure-Ground Reference and Indexicals in “The Life Aquatic”

First of all, this is not a critical interpretation of this film, it is not a hermeneutical analysis of the form of this script, I am merely using a snippet of discourse in order to demonstrate that a particular linguistic phenomena (figure-ground as a reference strategy) depends on more than truth and more than just shared attention; it requires a priori shared knowledge of the referent in a general context.  Secondly, I don’t even know if this is correct as an analysis, so I am not trying to make any major claims about any theory – I am trying to apply somethings I know about discourse to a piece of discourse, that is all.

Take some time and view the trailer for this film if you are unfamiliar with this scene, the scene is in the trailer and it is worth seeing.

Consider this fragment of discourse between Steve Zissou (Bill Murray) and Ned Plimpton (Owen Wilson) in the script of Wes Anderson’s “The Life Aquatic”:

Steve: Can you hear the jack whales singing?

[fog horn sound in the background]

Ned: Beautiful. I wonder what they’re saying.

Steve: Well that was the sludge tanker over there, but…

[the sound of whales singing in the background]

Steve: There you go!

In the film sequence for this scene there are numerous figure-ground organizations that occur, linguistically, visually, audibly; these converge to make sense out of the scene, and a complete analysis would need to consider this complete picture.

Roberts’ text discusses a similar type of situation in which a speaker directs the attention of a listener to a figure in the scene by selecting descriptions in the predicates of two different sentences.  He argues that this direction of attention does not rely upon the truthfulness of the predicate (as a predicate model would assert), but that it relies on other factors in the figure-ground relation, namely, that the figure is given to the hearer in the predicate description which points out the referent against the background (Roberts: 24). Continue reading

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how to talk about linguistics with non-linguists

As a specialist you have a level of contextual understanding for realms of knowledge contained in words for which non-specialists also have normal everyday uses.

Consider words like: “context”, “ungrammatical”, “attention”, and “construe”…these words mean entirely different things to a non-linguist than they do to a linguist (let alone the differences between a cognitive linguist and a generative linguist).

Using these types of words with non-linguists as if they understood the linguistic sense of the word will not work; you will have failed communication. Continue reading

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Francophilia, Phoenix’s 1901 & Daft Punk… Why I Hate Not Living in New York

ugh.  This makes my heart hurt because I wish I could have been there.

This is a fine French thing to do… seeing Thomas Mars perform reminds me of the French Fauvist painter Henri Matisse who said:

“I have always tried to hide my efforts and wished my works to have a light joyousness of springtime which never lets anyone suspect the labors it has cost me.”

Mars is so carefree and effortlessly cool.

[So is his girlfriend (Sofia Coppola), by the way, who graces Elle’s upcoming November cover]

And what is more, Daft Punk show up on stage and reinforce the joie de vivre of utter French-ness.  If this surprise visit means nothing to you, consider this: Daft Punk has not toured since 2007.

I could not stop weeping when I watched this clip.

 

[Clip from: http://www.youtube.com/user/Dubarco%5D

 

 

 

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Ground Before Figure Orientation and Divergent Activation in Bruno Mars & B.O.B.’s “Nothin’ On You” Lyrics

Driving home tonight I heard a song on the radio, on the local hip-hop and R&B station, and while the song kind of annoys me, I kind of like it too.  Anyway, this song exhibits a characteristic of a marked figure-ground organization for normal American English constructions, and I wanted to point it out.

“beautiful girls all over the world
i could be chasing but my time would be wasted
they got nothin’ on you baby
nothin’ on you baby
they might say hi and i might say hey
but you shouldn’t worry about what they say
cause they got nothin’ on you baby
nothin’ on you baby”

Did you catch that?  That heavy preposed object NP?  “beautiful girls all over the world I could be chasing…”

This marked form is meant to stand out.  You are supposed to want to think about the beautiful girls before he gets to the verb phrase…and then, when he gets to the verb phrase, you realize that he is trying to draw attention to the salient recipient of the song; his woman. Continue reading

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Why Linguists Can Always Have an Intelligent Comment on EVERYTHING.

If you are a linguist you already know this.

What is “this”?

I’ve not said yet.

Here it is: “Linguists have the ability to make an informed comment about anything.

Disagree?  Care to comment?  You will probably be articulating your disagreement using words strung together coherently, which falls in the domain of linguistic analysis.

What is more, conceptualization of reality informs the structure of meaning, so, as cognitive linguists we have the right to try to figure out what it is in the situated context that evoked meaning and enabled your coherence, which again, falls within the domain of our expertise as linguists.

Language pervades everything that anyone can conceive, it crosses domains in all forms of industry, the entire range of emotions, cultures, beliefs, procedures, and since humans operate in a world described and controlled by language, linguists have keys to understanding that exist on another level all together.

If it exists outside of the utility of language, in our feebleness as lesser beings we can still attempt to describe it using language; which again, is in our range of expertise.

This is not arrogance; this is the nature of being a student of conceptualization.

Playing a bar room piano like a lion…

So here is a video I made this afternoon, it has some excerpts from a song I have been composing this year.  I chose this because it takes two basic chords: C Major & G Major and alternates between the two to produce an emergent momentum.  They embody a sort of figure-ground organization on two levels, for two measures the chords are in opposition to one another, but in the full sequence of measures the chords, changing octaves along the way, form an interesting progression.  On the pair-wise micro level the chords are enemies, on the sequence macro level the chords are partners.  I like this.

Furthermore, the video outlines a style of piano playing that I made up for this song.  People in my circle of friends know me for always having a small performance for any celebration, this has the design to be a part of one of these performances, and I wanted to practice it.  This style of playing that I introduce is called a leoni, my bastardization of an Italian-esque language to mean “like a lion”… in my composition book I wrote this in the margin:

a leoni ‘like a lion’, clenched hands mimicking a pawing/clawing approach to the chords, imagining your body to be top-heavy with a mane of wild fur and a wide head with narrow hip cage and skinny but strong legs.”

This is supposed to be a little strange…

A further elaborations of the a leoni style includes:

pawing the mouse” which is a light plunking of the clenched fist as if placing one’s paw upon a mouse’s tail, letting go, and repeating for the duration of the measure.”

I have not illustrated pawing the mouse in this clip, I will save that for the finished piece, once I transcribe it and post the score.

Anyway, enjoy this…I think it is fun.

Ethno-Architecture, the Built Environment & Its Role in Conceptualization

While this is outside of the scope of cognitive linguistics, I wanted to share this link because it relates to the types of daily living experiences that people have within the built environment. As a facet of experience in which our bodies interact, the built environment shapes how we think about what we experience, in fact it becomes a stimulus that triggers conceptualization.

What is more, this is the situated context of experience which is the discursive platform for our interaction with the principles of perception. Continue reading

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A Brief Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis Summary…

A reasonable summary of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis in its tractable form is that different cultures interpret the same world differently and this has an impact on how they both think and construct meaning in language; in fact, language shapes or influences thought to some degree.  The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis combines linguistic relativity and linguistic determinism.  Adherents of the hypothesis follow these two principles to varying degrees producing gradient interpretations from weak to strong versions of the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis.  Cognitive linguists are among the only linguists to take this “mentalist” position seriously, and most linguists of any orientation reject a strong version of the hypothesis.  Continue reading

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MUST: Polysemous Network for a Closed Class Lexical Item

Here is another network diagram…double click to enlarge…the diagram is an interpretation of the sense variation for the semantics of the modal auxiliary “Must”.  [NB: I included a few obsolete usages that are not necessarily polysemy, but are definitely fun; these are notated with the dotted line].

 

There are two levels of membership that stem from the central MUST sense, the third level is actually just how I chose to represent the instances of the Must[x] sense.  I know that this does not reflect a good hierarchy since for example Must[Permission] only has one child (in my representation) rather than two or more children.  NB: I am not trying to show a level decomposition past the Must[x] sense level.

Also, I added three uses of Must that are obsolete or rare.  They are not actually related to the must in a polysemous way, they are homophones.  The OED listed them and I felt like I should at least acknowledge them.

 

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HEAD: Polysemous Network for an Open Class Lexical Item

Take a look at this diagram of a possible interpretation for the polysemous network of HEAD:

[Hint: double click the image to enlarge…]

The senses for head have both physical and metaphorical interpretations.  I seemed to identify three main categories where head is understood in the sense of 1) providing direction, 2) providing a locus of representation, and 3) being at the top, beginning, or peak of something.

To me, it seemed like the locus of representation/embodied representative sense could also be the category for the subcategory sense “Head (Lead)”…but I am not sure about whether or not I am stretching it too far.

This diagram displays 3 levels of senses that orient around the central sense HEAD.  Additionally, there is a ?level for an idiom usage (head over heels) that I feel could have some relation to the continuation of the “head over” sense.  While “head over” means to head in a particular direction, “head over heels” means that something has toppled a person’s orientation (DISorient) so that they are tumbling and reeling from the event (usually falling in love), I imagine this tumbling motion to be the head moving toward the direction of the heels, but perhaps there is a better interpretation.

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The ICM for STUDENT…as if this was really still a hot topic in Cognitive Linguistics

GDR "village teacher" (a teacher tea...

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ICMs structure mental spaces by providing asymmetrical matching or mismatching between concepts, center-periphery models to structure categories, and encapsulated categories to structure to the scope of predication.  Below is an assortment of these three strategies including sarcasm derived from mismatch, radiality stemming from extension from the base definition, and  metonymic effects in some of the images presented as social stereotypes.

STUDENT

  • The TRADITIONAL MODEL: a prototypical student attends a school at a school building during set hours (usually 8am to 3pm) to learn from a licensed teacher or professor who evaluates their progress and testifies to the student’s acquisition of knowledge through a grading system.  This student progresses through a series of academic levels which increase in difficulty and specificity.
  • The NON-TRADITIONAL MODEL: a student is someone who is unable to participate in the complete traditional school system because of restrictions or scheduling.  However, the role of student and the role of teacher remain similar to  that of the traditional model.  This model of student can be a commuter, a night school student, a distance learner, a trade-school student.
  • The AUTODIDACTIC MODEL: a student is someone who approaches learning with a student mentality, outside of the traditional infrastructure of an institutionalized school. For instance, there are life-long learners, self-taught painters, Helen Keller, tinkerers, enthusiasts.  Also, practicing ethnographers may fall into this model as they learn about cultures through observations, interviews, and other self-directed techniques.
  • The APPRENTICE MODEL: a student is an apprentice to a master in some discipline or trade which may or may not belong to an institutionalized guild system.  The apprentice learns from the wisdom of the master who has accumulated knowledge through years of experience.
  • The PROTEGE MODEL: a student is an extension of the teacher, in some cases for the glory of the teacher more than the student.
  • The CATHOLIC SCHOOLGIRL MODEL:  the ubiquitous Halloween costume almost as blase as HOOKER or NUN.
  • The PERFORMANCE MODEL: a student can exhibit a range of behaviors that indicate quality of performance. For instance, there are class clowns, dunces, straight A students, B students, model students, lazy students, drop out students.
  • The APPEARANCE MODEL: a student is anyone in the suburbs who reads thick books, looks young, or drives a car from the late 80s to mid 90s.
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Semantic Construal in the terms for Landscape Architects & Groundskeepers

If a landscaper works to sculpt the land and then someone has to maintain that land that person cannot be called a land keeper

(a) *land keeper

The person who upkeeps the landscaping must be called a grounds keeper (or a gardener…but the point I want to focus on is the distinction between construal of ground & land). We cannot refer to a land keeper and remain grammatical.

If you doubt the analysis try reversing the problem: can you say groundscaper?

Nope.

(b) *groundscaper

Ground is usually understood as something from a vertical axis, and something that is multiplex.

Land is usually understood as something from a horizontal axis, an expanse, and a discrete entity.

I want to know why the construed category for the object of labor is discrete in one case but multiplex in the other case…

Word choice matters. It matters because it reflects the way in which we conceptualize reality. Why does our language restrict our ability to discuss the same referent from the same perspective when we are discussing two different activities and their orientation?

In many cases Language is not economical in terms of lexicon & categorical semantics. Language is extravagant. I love it!

Quote from Harvard Business Review

“Put simply, people consistently act inconsistently, unaware of the contradiction between their espoused theory and their theory-in-use, between the way they think they are acting, and the way they really act.”

from “Teaching Smart People to Learn” [HBR: 1991]

Purple Finch vs Bird

House Finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) Purple finc...

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Today I experienced one of those classic text-book cases of construing a category member at varying levels of categorization for different purposes.

I was walking down the hall in my office today and I noticed a small purple bird sitting in a puddle of water in the rain.  It looked injured.  I looked at it for a while and thought that it might be a purple finch.  I went upstairs and found a shoe box in a cabinet and went outside to collect the bird.  I then took it to a nature center down in the forest preserve that has a wildlife rescue clinic, and this is where my construal takes place:

I walk in the door holding a shoe box. Continue reading

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Grammaticalization via Metaphoric Extension in Tok Pisin

Stomach diagram in Inkscape.

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Grammaticalization is a process whereby items in a language change to move (usually) from an open class to a closed class. There are three main types of grammaticalization: 1) metaphorical extension, 2) invited inferencing, and 3) subjectification.

I think that Melanesian Pidgin (Tok Pisin) uses  a metaphoric extension system to grammaticalize certain lexical items (I think these are instances of renewal where a content word takes on a grammatical use).  Several of these terms derive from body part metaphors that align with axiality or cardinality.

Bel

[Mind, soul, heart or internal state.  Literally, “stomach” or “belly”]

Bel bilong me kamap hat, or, belhat

[Anger, literally, “my stomach has become hot”, or “my stomach is hot”]

Asples

[Your home village, where you originate from – literally, your “ass place” locative for the place where your ass belongs]

Mousgrass

[mustache, literally “mouth grass”]

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The Gestalt Principle of Proximity, Pointillism, and Sex at Starbucks

Detail from Seurat's La Parade de Cirque (1889...

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The Principle of Proximity is a Gestalt principle that states that objects that occur in proximity to one another are perceived as beginning to form a pattern or whole.  The closer the occurrence, the greater the suggestion of meaning or pattern.  It seems reasonable to me to extend this principle beyond objects into occurrences, events, concepts, phenomenon, et cetera.  Some examples might include:

Vision: Georges Seurat’s paintings in the tradition of pointillism use adjacent dots of different colors to create gradient color groupings that the mind abstracts as a block of hue in an image.  Some of Chuck Close’s paintings also have a similar effect. Continue reading

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howzit!

Ala Moana and Makiki

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I recently had a visit to my site from Oahu, where I lived for a while…  I thought I would choose four samples from my memories of Hawai’i and illustrate Talmy’s Reference frames…
Anyway, here they are:

a. Ground Based

“The musubi is next to the register”

This example accesses a single reference point and elaborates on the position of one object in relation to the other by indicating its intrinsic geometric location in space.

b. Field Based

“Matsumoto’s Shave Ice is just south of the North Shore.”

This accesses an encompassing secondary reference point (Earth) which is implied in the use of “just south of”, by using the cardinal direction on the earth in relation to the other landmark “the North Shore” the speaker is providing the listener with a way to navigate to Matsumoto’s Shave Ice.  (I recommend getting the red beans and vanilla ice cream with your shave ice if you ever go. http://www.matsumotoshaveice.com/)

c. Guidepost Based (in a Hawai’ian and Pidgin English code switch)

“Wea you stay? Makai side?”

“No, mauka side.”

[Makai approximately means “on the side of the ocean”]

[Mauka approximately means “on the side of the mountains”]

In this example, the primary reference point is the respondent’s house (the place where the respondent stay (lives)). In the question makai (the ocean) represents and encompassing reference point.  In the answer mauka (the mountains) represent the external reference point.

On an island the ocean is encompassing and all surrounding, but the mountains are a physical landmark that in this kind of usage are not considered encompassing.  Because the most people live between the ocean and the mountains on Oahu they represent boundaries rather than expanses.

I was thinking that perhaps the makai/mauka distinction might reflect a kind of physical center-periphery schema that is habitually understood on Oahu since the mountains are (more or less) in the middle/center of the island and the ocean is the periphery.

Also, most houses are contained within a taurus-shaped belt of land that is conceptually gradient in terms of being closer to the ocean or closer to the mountains.  Consequently you understand your house in relation to these landmarks; your house is either more characteristically mauka side or more characteristically makai side.

d. Projector Based

The tennis courts are to the right of Waikiki Yacht Club and to the left of The Bus at Ala Moana.

In this situation, the speaker (who is the secondary reference point) is projecting a left/right orientation from the speaker’s perspective) onto benchmark locations in a city (the Waikiki Yacht Club & The Bus).

http://www.thebus.org/

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CogDef #1 (cognitive definitions)

I have several friends who are strict Generativists/Formalists and I want to start a little series that summarizes information about topics that sometimes get muddled up in cross-theoretical discussions.  This is the first in the series.

In the Cognitive Enterprise semantics drives the modeling in grammar (which is why it is a functional model). Grammar does not strictly mean syntax, as formal theories assume, but entails the entire package of language. Here is how we break down the approaches to semantics and syntax:

  1. Cognitive Semantics is used as a lens to view the conceptual structure and conceptualization
  2. Cognitive Grammar is used to view the cognitive principles that give rise to linguistic orientation
  3. Construction Grammar is used to view the units that emerge from cognitive semantics & comprise the grammar.

Going back through Evans & Green I found that I had written these definitions in the margin of page 49, hopefully they are clear.

Bibliography

Evans. V. & Green. M. (2006). Cognitive Linguistics, an introduction, LEA

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Mashing Ray Jackendoff’s Ontological Categories with James Spradley’s Cultural Dimensions & Wh- Question Words

While I don’t necessarily agree with Jackendoff’s use of the semantic primitives, and while I recognize that this comes from a book that is from the early 80’s, I still want to present these ontological categories because they represent one way that the world is sliced, and they have interesting correlations to wh– question words.

Frankly, they are a little too close to Aristotalian categories for me to have much use for them in the stuff I am doing, but still, this represents an interesting perspective that ties in with ethnographic inquiry [specifically James Spradley’s work in Participant Observation].

Jackendoff proposes categories like THING, PLACE, DIRECTION, ACTION, EVENT, MANNER, AMOUNT and proposes a correlate question word which would access this category.

Spradley talks about 9 cultural dimensions: SPACE, OBJECT, ACT, ACTIVITY, EVENT, TIME, ACTOR, GOAL, FEELING, and looking at these nine dimensions in a matrix provides an ethnographer with 81 questions to keep their observations focused. But Jackendoff is more interested in seeing how these types of categories are manifest in linguistic structure, and less interested in modeling culture. Continue reading

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Lexical Ambiguity Couched in a Formulaic Reference to either Sunglasses or Blindness

A range of sunglasses with different lense col...

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Today on the train I overheard one man say to another man: “I got my Stevie Wonders on…I didn’t even see you.”

Either he was trying to convey that his inability to see his friend on the train was equivalent to a blind man’s (i.e., Stevie Wonder) inability to see his friend, in which case he did not need to be wearing his “Stevie Wonders” (sunglasses?); or, he meant that because he was wearing sunglasses and because of the lighting on the train he failed to perceive his friend sitting across the car from him.

Unfortunately I did not turn around to see which was the case.

[NB: I don’t think he meant anything against Stevie Wonder, blind people, or disabled people…the person he was addressing was in a wheel chair and seemed to take it ok.]

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Cognitive Mindfulness #17

Reading Langacker’s Cognitive Grammar has been a dense pleasure.  I am currently reading part of it in a volume edited by Dirk Geeraerts called Cognitive Linguistics: Basic Readings (Mouton de Gruyter).  Consider these words about the networked meaning of a lexical item:

Most lexical items have a considerable array of interrelated senses, which define the range of their conventionally sanctioned usage.  These alternate senses are conveniently represented in network form…The nodes and categorizing relationships in such a network differ in their degree of entrenchment and cognitive salience…The precise configuration of such a network is less important than recognizing the inadequacy of any reductionist description of lexical meaning. A speaker’s knowledge of the conventional value of a lexical item cannot in general be reduced to a single structure, such as a prototype or the highest-level schema.  For one thing, not every lexical category has a single, clearly determined prototype, nor can we invariably assume a high-level schema fully compatible with the specifications of every node in the network.

[Langacker’s Cognitive Grammar, 31, Geeraerts] (emphasis mine)

This is amazing, it basically asserts that lexical meaning resides in the total package of lexical knowledge and the relationship between points in the network.  In my understanding, this is the basis for grounding a strict reliance on encyclopedic knowledge in sense-making activities.

Bibliography

Geeraerts, D. editor. (2006) Cognitive Linguistics: Basic Readings, Mouton de Gruyter

Langacker, R.W. (1990). Introduction in Concept, Image, and Symbol: The Cognitive Basis of Grammar, Mouton de Gruyter (Reprint of ‘An introduction to cognitive grammar’. Cognitive Science 10(1):1-40, 1986.)

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“Dad Jokes” about ballet and perfume in French

Tonight on the way to the ballet my wife and I were riding in the car with one of her friends.  It came up that my sister-in-law’s roommate’s cat pissed in a cardboard box full of her purses.  Our friend made a joke about my sister-in-law wearing a new perfume that smelled like cat piss.  I couldn’t pass up the opportunity to chime in with a joke of my own and said that she was probably wearing “piss de chat” (it sounded like a French perfume name…).  No one laughed.

We kept driving.

I couldn’t let it pass.

I said, “No one laughed at my ballet joke.”

They did not know what I was talking about.

I said: “Pas de Chat is a ballet jump and it means Cat’s Step.  I switched the Pas with Piss to make it into a French name for a perfume that smelled like cat piss.”

No one laughed this time either.

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Metaphoric Extension of Hunger and Thirst Adjectives

Knowledge, mural by Robert Lewis Reid. Second ...

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So, this morning as I was coming out of sleep and waking to face the day I remember trying to figure out why the stative adjective for not being satiated and having hunger was hungry and the stative adjective for not being quenched and having thirst was thirsty, but the stative adjective for not knowing everything and wanting knowledge was not *knowledgy. (*indicates ungrammaticality)

Instead of having a stative adjective to describe the want of knowledge, we say things like “have a thirst for knowledge” or “hunger after knowledge”, these are both metaphoric extensions of adjectives that describe situations which have a number of features in common.  For instance, hunger and thirst share these features: Continue reading

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How Spiders Conceptualize Reality

I found this spider in West Africa...outside my house.

I was working through a homework assignment about developing a language that captures the conceptualization patterns that a spider would have (given the boundaries of its embodied experience), this was a fun experiment, very much like Thomas Nagel’s What is it like to be a bat? (1974).  Anyway, here are some of the ways I cut up the problem:

If I am a spider, these are things that I cannot do:

  • pick stuff up and hold it in my hands
  • juggle
  • flick stuff
  • jump up and down vertically (rather than forward)
  • throw
  • kick
  • dance Continue reading
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Cognitive Mindfulness #16

Pilgrim at Tinker Creek

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I am rereading a book that I have been rereading on a consistent basis for the last twelve years, this time I am thinking more about consciousness than I have in previous readings; accordingly this passage stuck out in a more dynamic way than I remember from times past:

Self-consciousness, however, does not hinder the experience of the present.  It is the one instrument that unplugs all the rest.  So long as I lose myself in a tree, say, I can scent its leafy breath or estimate its board feet of lumber, I can draw its fruits or boil tea on its branches, and the tree stays tree.  But the second I become aware of myself at any of these activities – looking over my own shoulder, as it were – the tree vanishes, uprooted from the spot and flung out of sight as if it had never grown.  And time, which had flowed down into the tree bearing new revelations like floating leaves at every moment, ceases.  It dams, stills, stagnates. [82, Dillard]

I am aiming to be more at home in the present, but I am trying not to think too much about it since, paradoxically, the very effort of focusing on the present relegates it to an artifact of the past and a moment to which I become an outside observer who does not belong.

Bibliography

Dillard, A. (1974).  Pilgrim at Tinker Creek, Harper Perennial

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Wow! This is an amazing overview of Cognitive Linguistics…

If you know nothing about the Cognitive Linguistics enterprise, this overview is a great place to start.

I personally think that Vyvyan Evans is one of the clearest writers in the field…

Go buy the book (this is an excerpt).

Evans, Vyvyan, Benjamin K. Bergen, Jörg Zinken (editors) (2007). The Cognitive Linguistics Reader (Advances in Cognitive Linguistics), Equinox Publishing Ltd

[ISBN 1845531094]

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Disambiguate Me! #19 [Perspectives on Hierarchy in Society – Ongka’s Big Moka]

Coat of arms of Papua New Guinea

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Perspectives on Hierarchy in Society

There are societies which organize hierarchically, in which dominance may be held over an individual for a variety of reasons that relate to social status.  There are also many societies in which one individual may not dominate another individual.  These two approaches affect the way that we interpret identity and membership.

I recently viewed an ethnographic film called Ongka’s Big Moka that tells the story of a man called Ongka from the Kwelka people group in the highlands of Papua New Guinea where reciprocity and giving fill the role that social hierarchy fills in my own people group in my part of America.

Reciprocity enables social order. Continue reading

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Schematization of a research article on discourse metaphors

I am learning about various research methods and so I am reading articles to figure out their basic approach to research.  Here is an article that I have recently read and that I feel embodies a good research design.  Many people say that Cognitive Linguistics has a deficiency in text-based scholarship, this is a good example of a project that embraces text (original texts and transcripts of speeches – so, transcript as artifact/object of study)…enjoy!

Review of: Zinken, J. ‘Discourse metaphors: The link between figurative language and habitual analogies’ in Cognitive Linguistics 18(3) 2007, pp 445-466

This article introduces discourse metaphors as a link between language use and habitual analogical schemas to show that metaphors do not exist only at the superordinate level of categorization (as Conceptual Metaphor Theory suggests), but that they also exhibit systematically consistent (form-specific) figurative mappings at other levels.  In other words, lexical items within a superordinate level also have distinct patterns for figurative use; Zinken terms these discourse metaphors. Continue reading

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Cognitive Mindfulness #15

Schema for cognitive differenciation between c...

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Ronald Langacker is considered one of the founding fathers of the Cognitive Linguistics enterprise, his seminal work in Cognitive Grammar has influenced pretty much everyone who does anything at all in Cognitive Linguistics.  Anyway, here is a quote that talks about the conventional meaning of a lexical item, this grounds the notion of encyclopedic knowledge: Continue reading

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Cognitive Mindfulness #14

This comes from the introduction to a book edited by Dirk Geeraerts:

If conceptual perspectivization is the central function of a grammar, the typical formal categories of grammatical description (like word classes or inflection) will have to be reinterpreted from a semantic point of view. [7 Geeraerts, 2006]

It made me think twice…especially since syntax has been the normal focus of grammar in the last 50-70 years; a meaning based grammar makes a lot more sense to me than a rewrite rule based grammar.

Bibliography:

Geeraerts, Dirk, editor, (2006). Cognitive Linguistics: Basic Readings, Mouton de Gruyter

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Language Is a System

Language makes use of ecological elements (symbolic function, communicative function, et cetera) to provide an integrated “tool” with which meaning can be expressed and understood.

Being a system implies the interrelationship of components where a change in stimulus, neurological mechanism or linguistic mechanism alters the system output.  Meaning changes when one element changes, so, as in the case of active vs. passive syntactic arrangements, any syntactic change must entail a semantic change.

The elements of language follow certain regularities in collocations, arrangements and combinations that emerge from meaning and categorization. Continue reading

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The Symbolic Function and Communicative Function of Language

The Symbolic Function of language is the mechanism by which meaning is attached to form.  It is the pairing of form and meaning; the symbolic function is a sense-making utility that labels objects (referents) with “names” that map to a conceptualized meaning.

The Communicative Function of language is the means by which parties exchange notions of combined symbols in conventionalized ways to share conceptualizations in a relational way.  This includes the ability to alter states of the world, to express internalizations, and to situate meaning in ad hoc frames that draw on world knowledge and encyclopedic knowledge.

These two functions interact in a number of ways, actual usage of symbols to communicate being one of those interactions – this may work to explain how idioms form, as the symbols are used in communication to attach meaning to a symbolic construction – entrenched usage normalizing the idiomatic construction into a common unit of communication.

Works Consulted:

Evans, V. & Green, M. (2006). Cognitive Linguistics an Introduction, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

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Disambiguate Me! #16 [Clues about Cultural Membership in Online Social Networks]

Description: Social Networking Source: own wor...

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Clues about Cultural Membership in Online Social Networks

We leak information about our various cultural memberships with each and every action that we take.  Locating that information is not difficult; a quick survey of your own information leakage will provide you with volumes of qualitative and quantitative data.

The quality of statements made in status updates can reflect or disguise the feelings that one identity has about a situation or individual, and can provide transparency during a trigger happy update which is left unchecked and uncensored by the immediacy of the posting.  These are self-revealing statements that enhance or detract from the perception of the individual. Continue reading

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Cognitive Mindfulness #13

Viewers of the Jonas Burgert painting Second D...

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In the book The Artful Mind (edited by Mark Turner), Merlin Donald describes art as being characterized by seven features:

  1. Art is aimed at influencing the minds of an audience, and may therefore be called a form of cognitive engineering.
  2. It always occurs in the context of distributed cognition.
  3. It is constructivist in nature, aimed at the deliberate refinement and elaboration of worldviews.
  4. Most art is metacognitive in its role – that is, it engages in self-reflection, both individually and socially.
  5. The forms and media of art are technology-driven.
  6. The role of the artist and the local social definition of art are not necessarily fixed and are products of the current social-cognitive network.
  7. Nevertheless, art, unlike most conventional engineering, is always aimed at a cognitive outcome.

[Merlin Donald, page 19 in The Artful Mind]

This list of characteristics gives me a good sense of context for how to approach art as a producer and a consumer in a way that recognizes and honors the important role that Art has played in the evolution of social cognition.  I appreciate the imagery of cognitive engineering – this is the “magic synthesis” as Arieti would call it.  I want to engage more in the act of engineering cognitive understanding through my art, for me this means approaching the creative process from the vantage point of an artist and a scientist, a generalist and a specialist, a teacher and a learner. Continue reading

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Disambiguate Me! #15 [Life as a Consumer & Embedded Information in Consumer Data]

Life as a Consumer

Consider the range of simple and easily collated consumer data that currently exists which betrays some information about the relations that an individual has with the world:

  • Financial Data (taxes, loans, rate of settling loans, debt-to-income ratio, etc)
  • Possessions (deeds, titles, licenses for different equipment, receipts)
  • Media Consumption (bookmarks, cable bill, movie rental, internet speed, etc)
  • Consumption (shopper’s savings cards, marketing data, contents of recycle bins)
  • Movement (triangulation of credit cards at gas pumps, tolls and speed and time and distance calculated b y GPS chips in personal electronics, ATMs, airfare, visas and passport usage, type of bus pass (weekly, single use, monthly, student) Continue reading
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I have finally found a used bookstore that actually has a cognitive linguistics section!

Check it out:

City Books, Inc.  1111 E. Carson Street, Pittsburgh

This store is neatly organized, the bookshelves are fantastic…they specialize in general and scholarly hardback books in the humanities, social science, and fine arts…AMAZING!

I recently visited and purchased a book I have been wanting for five years…Leonard Talmy’s Toward a Cognitive Semantics Vol. II Typology and Process in Concept Structuring, MIT

Confession: I read part of this book at my school in England & photocopied a chapter with the intent of eventually purchasing it… I am so happy to have my own copy!

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Cognitive Mindfulness #12

We face the future; the past is behind us.

In English we talk about the future being ahead of us, forward in time, in front of us, what lies ahead, what is to come, what we are facing, what our week looks like, what we see approaching.

We talk about the past as being behind us, something that we look back on, something we have passed through (and as such is behind us), what our year looked like.

This is the way that we use our body and our experience to shape our understanding of the sequence of events in our life, to make sense out of TIME in terms of SPACE. Continue reading

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Cognitive Mindfulness #11

“No poem is intended for the reader, no picture for the beholder, no symphony for the listener.  Is translation meant for readers who do not want to understand the original?” – Walter Benjamin.

Any thoughts?

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Ethnocentrism in Parenting

I just started reading an ethnomusicology book and I was struck by this definition of ethnocentrism.  Being an anthropologist I am conscious of the dangers of ethnocentrism in my practice and I can look at members in their context and not force my own values onto those members in my evaluation.  But still the clarity of this quote haunted me a little.

When the commonsense perspective dominates the attitude of anyone confronting new and strange experiences, it becomes ethnocentrism.  Ethnocentrism is the common tendency to view all human behavior from the value system of one’s own society, often including the tendency to consider other practices inferior and misguided.  The scholar must therefore avoid the commonsense perspective of his or her own society, and seek to understand other people’s practices from their point of view. Every society has its own commonsense perspective, and part of the task of understanding music in other societies is to understand the commonsense perspective commonly held in those societies.

[2-3, Kaemmer, 1993]

When I read this passage it reminded me of my own fears of ethnocentrism in my life.  My fear is that one day I will have a child who values a different type of creativity than I value.  Actually, it is not necessarily a different type of creativity as much as it is a preference for a different aesthetic in my child’s progression into self-expression.  I am embarrassed to even admit that fear. Continue reading

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Cognitive Mindfulness #10

This quote is about how to achieve a natural translation.

‘And again,’ went on Claudius, ‘have your French composed by a Frenchman. You gentlemen may pride yourselves on writing good French, grammatical French, but a Frenchman reading it would know it was not written by a Frenchman. I’ll go further than that, gentlemen, Give a Frenchman a passage in English and tell him to render it into French and a Frenchman will still be aware that all is not well when he reads it.  You must have your French composed ab initio by a Frenchmen, contenting yourselves with merely outlining what is to be said.

C.S. Forester ‘s Hornblower and the Crisis

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Recursion, Björk, Mise en Abyme, Abstraction & the Ontological Metaphor ‘CONTAINER’

Abstraction takes an instance of something and edits out the redundancy and unnecessary elements to leave the basic pattern in a less detailed, but more succinct manner.

Abstraction in art seems to be something of a catch-all bin for art that is not realistic, at least in the common vernacular of the non-art historian/non-art critic.  This is not a healthy conceptualization of abstraction, and it may distort the understanding of abstraction.  I know for me, my view of abstraction was not clear for a very long time because I only associated the term with contemporary art.

What are some of the senses of abstraction?

  • Abstract vs. Concrete
  • Abstract vs. Body Content
  • Abstract vs. Realistic (similar to concrete)

I am interested in the abstraction that has the effect of zooming out, blurring the edges, pixilating the resolution, blocking smaller patterns into larger patterns; this kind of abstraction is of the summarization kind. Continue reading

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Cognitive Mindfulness #9(b)

Martin Creed 'Work No 850' at Tate Britain

Image by Loz Flowers via Flickr

This is part two of Cognitive Mindfulness #9, and continues the Evans & Green passage.

“The difference between the domains of TIME and SPACE is that while TIME has the property of progression, SPACE is static.  ‘Progression’ means that the quantity within this domain is made up of a sequence of distinct representations because it changes from one instance to the next.  By way of illustration, imagine photographing someone engaged in an activity like stroking a cat.  Each of the photographs you take will be different from the previous one, and together they portray the activity.  In contrast, change is not an inherent property of objects, although of course objects can be involved in processes of change.”  [515-516, Evans & Green, 2006]

Immediately this reminds me of Dave Eggers and his quote about relationships from his work “You Shall Know Our Velocity!” Continue reading

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Cognitive Mindfulness #9(a)

This passage covers a discussion of the conceptual domains of space and time while introducing the quantities of each domain and their instantiation in reality.  I like this passage because it differentiates basic concepts in matter and action; since these are the components of productive creativity I feel that this clear exposition of these concepts enables me to be more creative with my art.

The quantity that exists in the domain of SPACE is matter, which may be either continuous or discrete.  We return to these terms directly, but for the time being we can think of ‘continuous’ matter as having no inherent ‘segmentation’ in its composition; this type of matter is mass, illustrated by AIR. Continue reading

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